How to format your references using the Scientia Iranica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientia Iranica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., “Capping active volcanoes”, Nature, 428(6980), p. 347 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
Morone, F. and Makse, H. A., “Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation”, Nature, 524(7563), pp. 65–68 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
Woodroffe, R., Hedges, S., and Durant, S. M., “Ecology. To fence or not to fence”, Science, 344(6179), pp. 46–48 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alexander, C. M. O., Grossman, J. N., Ebel, D. S., and Ciesla, F. J., “The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites”, Science, 320(5883), pp. 1617–1619 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Acharya, V. V., Cooley, T. F., Richardson, M., and Walter, I., Regulating Wall Street, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010).
An edited book
Cho, W. C. S., Ed., Acupuncture and Moxibustion as an Evidence-Based Therapy for Cancer, Evidence-Based Anticancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
Fossorier, M. P. C., Mihaljević, M. J., Imai, H., Cui, Y., and Matsuura, K., “An Algorithm for Solving the LPN Problem and Its Application to Security Evaluation of the HB Protocols for RFID Authentication”, In Progress in Cryptology - INDOCRYPT 2006: 7th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Kolkata, India, December 11-13, 2006. Proceedings, R. Barua and T. Lange, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 48–62 (2006).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientia Iranica.

Blog post
Andrew, E., “How To Make Sure You’ll Have Tall, Healthy Kids”,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The Treasury Financial Communications System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1986).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens, B. S., “Understanding CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Activation by CXC Chemokine Ligand 12”, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, P. and Shear, M. D., “President Shifts Rationale For Firing F.B.I. Director, Calling Him a ‘Showboat’”, New York Times (May 11, 2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScientia Iranica
ISSN (print)1026-3098
ISSN (online)2345-3605

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