How to format your references using the Scientia Iranica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientia Iranica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kump, L. R., “Reducing uncertainty about carbon dioxide as a climate driver”, Nature, 419(6903), pp. 188–190 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
Karels, T. J. and Boonstra, R., “Concurrent density dependence and independence in populations of arctic ground squirrels”, Nature, 408(6811), pp. 460–463 (2000).
A journal article with 3 authors
Harvey, J. A., Corley, L. S., and Strand, M. R., “Competition induces adaptive shifts in caste ratios of a polyembryonic wasp”, Nature, 406(6792), pp. 183–186 (2000).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alford, M., Blaschke, D., Drago, A., Klähn, T., Pagliara, G., and Schaffner-Bielich, J., “Astrophysics: quark matter in compact stars?”, Nature, 445(7125), pp. E7-8; discussion E8 (2007).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sabol, S., Case Studies in Mechanical Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016).
An edited book
Tarbouriech, S., Garcia, G., and Glattfelder, A. H., Eds., Advanced Strategies in Control Systems with Input and Output Constraints, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007).
A chapter in an edited book
Nicolosi, G. and Korthals, M., “Narrative Strategies in Food Advertising”, In Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food, C. Coff, D. Barling, M. Korthals, and T. Nielsen, Eds., The International Library of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Ethics, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 63–78 (2008).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientia Iranica.

Blog post
Taub, B., “Medical Examiner’s Report Shows Prince Died After Overdosing On Painkiller That’s 80 Times Stronger Than Morphine”,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Government’s Use of International Data Corporation’s Subscription Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1982).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, W. A., “Every citizen a soldier: The U.S. Army’s campaign for universal military training following World War II”, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., “In a Word, Fabulous”, New York Times (July 29, 2007).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScientia Iranica
ISSN (print)1026-3098
ISSN (online)2345-3605

Other styles