How to format your references using the Scientia Iranica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientia Iranica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D., “Power to the people”, Nature, 430(7002), pp. 928–929 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
Perakis, S. S. and Hedin, L. O., “Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds”, Nature, 415(6870), pp. 416–419 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
Hirata, A., Klein, B. J., and Murakami, K. S., “The X-ray crystal structure of RNA polymerase from Archaea”, Nature, 451(7180), pp. 851–854 (2008).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Beck, P., Gillet, P., El Goresy, A., and Mostefaoui, S., “Timescales of shock processes in chondritic and martian meteorites”, Nature, 435(7045), pp. 1071–1074 (2005).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meier, H. B., Marthinsen, J. E., and Gantenbein, P. A., Swiss Finance, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012).
An edited book
Gabbay, D. M., Conditionals and Modularity in General Logics, Cognitive Technologies, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011).
A chapter in an edited book
Barber, C., “Augmentation of Groundwater Resources through Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Method”, In Groundwater: Resource Evaluation, Augmentation, Contamination, Restoration, Modeling and Management, M. Thangarajan, Ed., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 112–127 (2007).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientia Iranica.

Blog post
Andrew, E., “Human Knockouts Help Clarify Gene Function”,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Financial Management Systems: Additional Efforts Needed to Address Key Causes of Modernization Failures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2006).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu, B., “Periodic Motions and Bifurcation Tree in a Periodically Excited Oscillator with Quadratic Nonlinearity”, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hay, G. and Currie, A., “Barclays’ Appetite For a U.S. Bank”, New York Times (March 11, 2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScientia Iranica
ISSN (print)1026-3098
ISSN (online)2345-3605

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