How to format your references using the Scientia Iranica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientia Iranica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Van Swygenhoven, H., “Polycrystalline materials. Grain boundaries and dislocations”, Science, 296(5565), pp. 66–67 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
McMurray, M. A. and Gottschling, D. E., “An age-induced switch to a hyper-recombinational state”, Science, 301(5641), pp. 1908–1911 (2003).
A journal article with 3 authors
Curry, R., Dickson, B., and Yashayaev, I., “A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades”, Nature, 426(6968), pp. 826–829 (2003).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ishikawa, K., Takenaga, K., Akimoto, M., Koshikawa, N., Yamaguchi, A., Imanishi, H., Nakada, K., Honma, Y., and Hayashi, J.-I., “ROS-generating mitochondrial DNA mutations can regulate tumor cell metastasis”, Science, 320(5876), pp. 661–664 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noldus, R., CAMEL, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006).
An edited book
Bayro-Corrochano, E. and Scheuermann, G., Eds., Geometric Algebra Computing: In Engineering and Computer Science, Springer, London (2010).
A chapter in an edited book
Feinäugle, C. A., “The UN Security Council Al-Qaida and Taliban Sanctions Committee: Emerging Principles of International Institutional Law for the Protection of Individuals?”, In The Exercise of Public Authority by International Institutions: Advancing International Institutional Law, A. von Bogdandy, R. Wolfrum, J. von Bernstorff, P. Dann, and M. Goldmann, Eds., Beiträge Zum Ausländischen Öffentlichen Recht Und Völkerrecht, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 101–131 (2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientia Iranica.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., “How Phobos Got Its Giant Crater”,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Third Party Funding Agreements: No Longer Appropriate for Serving the Handicapped Through the Vocational Rehabilitation Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1978).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Priddy, J. D.-J., “As Tufa to Sapphire: Gendering the Roles of Medieval Women in Combat”, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T., “Rebalancing the Population Scales”, New York Times (November 8, 2014).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScientia Iranica
ISSN (print)1026-3098
ISSN (online)2345-3605

Other styles