How to format your references using the Scientia Iranica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientia Iranica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ober, C. K., “Self-assembly. Persistence pays off”, Science, 296(5569), pp. 859–861 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray, R. D. and Atkinson, Q. D., “Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin”, Nature, 426(6965), pp. 435–439 (2003).
A journal article with 3 authors
Philips, J. A., Rubin, E. J., and Perrimon, N., “Drosophila RNAi screen reveals CD36 family member required for mycobacterial infection”, Science, 309(5738), pp. 1251–1253 (2005).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mancuso, K., Hauswirth, W. W., Li, Q., Connor, T. B., Kuchenbecker, J. A., Mauck, M. C., Neitz, J., and Neitz, M., “Gene therapy for red-green colour blindness in adult primates”, Nature, 461(7265), pp. 784–787 (2009).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duckert, G. H., Practical Enterprise Risk Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010).
An edited book
Marsden, J. E., Hamiltonian Reduction by Stages, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007).
A chapter in an edited book
Tryggvason, G., Lu, J., Biswas, S., and Esmaeeli, A., “Studies of Bubbly Channel Flows by Direct Numerical Simulations”, In Turbulence and Interactions: Keynote Lectures of the TI 2006 Conference, M. Deville, T.-H. Lê, and P. Sagaut, Eds., Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 93–111 (2009).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientia Iranica.

Blog post
Andrews, R., “Borneo’s ‘Deep Skull’ Rewrites History Of Human Evolution”,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, International Aviation: DOT’s Efforts to Increase U.S. Airlines’ Access to International Markets, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1996).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boakyewa, O. A., “Nana Oparebea and the Akonnedi Shrine: Cultural, religious and global agents”, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., “Harry Styles Tops Billboard Chart”, New York Times (May 22, 2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScientia Iranica
ISSN (print)1026-3098
ISSN (online)2345-3605

Other styles