How to format your references using the Scientia Iranica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scientia Iranica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemingway, J., “Malaria: Fifteen years of interventions”, Nature, 526(7572), pp. 198–199 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Higgins, A. M. and Jones, R. A., “Anisotropic spinodal dewetting as a route to self-assembly of patterned surfaces”, Nature, 404(6777), pp. 476–478 (2000).
A journal article with 3 authors
Doi, T., Behera, S. K., and Yamagata, T., “Predictability of the Ningaloo Niño/Niña”, Sci. Rep., 3, p. 2892 (2013).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Williams, P. A., Cosme, J., Ward, A., Angove, H. C., Matak Vinković, D., and Jhoti, H., “Crystal structure of human cytochrome P450 2C9 with bound warfarin”, Nature, 424(6947), pp. 464–468 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chapman, R. J., Simple Tools and Techniques for Enterprise Risk Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK (2012).
An edited book
Gussone, N., Calcium Stable Isotope Geochemistry, Advances in Isotope Geochemistry, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Kombrink, S., Hannemann, M., and Burget, L., “Out-of-Vocabulary Word Detection and Beyond”, In Detection and Identification of Rare Audiovisual Cues, D. Weinshall, J. Anemüller, and L. van Gool, Eds., Studies in Computational Intelligence, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 57–65 (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scientia Iranica.

Blog post
Andrews, R., “Bacteria Can ‘Talk’ To Each Other Using Electrical Signals”,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities and Potential Improvements for the Air Cargo System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2002).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munoz, S., “Mental Health Care for Foreign Born Latinos: A Grant Proposal”, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J. F., “Accelerators Lend Help to a Business Idea Trying to Catch Fire”, New York Times (October 13, 2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScientia Iranica
ISSN (print)1026-3098
ISSN (online)2345-3605

Other styles