How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cardiac Electrophysiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cardiac Electrophysiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schon, G. (2000). Superconducting nanowires. Nature 404, 948–949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cranch, G. A., and Foster, S. (2012). Comment on “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing.” Science 335, 286; author reply 286.
A journal article with 3 authors
Erickson, G. M., Rogers, K. C., and Yerby, S. A. (2001). Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates. Nature 412, 429–433.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rickert, M., Wang, X., Boulanger, M. J., Goriatcheva, N., and Garcia, K. C. (2005). The structure of interleukin-2 complexed with its alpha receptor. Science 308, 1477–1480.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Means, R. S. (2010). Green Building:. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Baldini, F., Chester, A. N., Homola, J., and Martellucci, S. eds. (2006). Optical Chemical Sensors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Fred, A. L. N., Lourenço, A., Aidos, H., Rota Bulò, S., Rebagliati, N., Figueiredo, M. A. T., et al. (2013). “Learning Similarities from Examples Under the Evidence Accumulation Clustering Paradigm,” in Similarity-Based Pattern Analysis and Recognition, ed. M. Pelillo (London: Springer), 85–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cardiac Electrophysiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Device Gives Real-Time Look at Cancer Metastasis. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). FAA Appropriation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crider, M. C. (2012). The social and environmental effects of shrimp mariculture: Case studies of two coastal villages in Ecuador.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017). The Storming of Mount Salzburg. New York Times, AR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schon, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schon, 2000; Cranch and Foster, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cranch and Foster, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Rickert et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cardiac Electrophysiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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