How to format your references using the Science Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. M. Moraes, Perspective: Lessons from Brazil, Nature 474, S25 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. H. Elderfield, R. E. Rickaby, Oceanic Cd/P ratio and nutrient utilization in the glacial Southern Ocean, Nature 405, 305–310 (2000).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. P.-S. Liang, T. S. Park, J.-Y. Yoon, Rapid and reagentless detection of microbial contamination within meat utilizing a smartphone-based biosensor, Sci. Rep. 4, 5953 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. H. J. Tripp, J. B. Kitner, M. S. Schwalbach, J. W. H. Dacey, L. J. Wilhelm, S. J. Giovannoni, SAR11 marine bacteria require exogenous reduced sulphur for growth, Nature 452, 741–744 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. P. P. Drake, F. J. Fabozzi, Foundations and Applications of the Time Value of Money (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009).
An edited book
1. C. Rozenblat, G. Melançon, Eds., Methods for Multilevel Analysis and Visualisation of Geographical Networks (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
1. G. R. Lucas, in The Ethics of Information Warfare, Law, Governance and Technology Series. L. Floridi, M. Taddeo, Eds. (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014), pp. 73–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science Translational Medicine.

Blog post
1. J. O`Callaghan, NASA Tests Buoyant Rover That Could Explore Europa’s OceanIFLScience (2015) (available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, National Airspace System: Review of FAA’s Spending for Operations (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. R. Gonzalez, thesis, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. S. K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Moldova: Political TensionNew York Times , A10 (2002).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleScience Translational Medicine
AbbreviationSci. Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)1946-6234
ISSN (online)1946-6242
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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