How to format your references using the Science Translational Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science Translational Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. R. Gläser, Catalysis: The complexity of intimacy, Nature 528, 197–198 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. D. G. Melnik, T. A. Miller, Chemistry. The changing shapes of molecules, Science 320, 881–882 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. V. R. Murthy, W. van Westrenen, Y. Fei, Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores, Nature 423, 163–165 (2003).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. M. G. Leakey, F. Spoor, F. H. Brown, P. N. Gathogo, C. Kiarie, L. N. Leakey, I. McDougall, New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages, Nature 410, 433–440 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. D. R. Schwarz, Reading the European Novel to 1900 (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014).
An edited book
1. B. H. Bornstein, M. K. Miller, Eds., Advances in Psychology and Law: Volume 2 (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
1. T. Wichmann, M. R. DeLong, in Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders, Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa. P. Riederer, H. Reichmann, M. B. H. Youdim, M. Gerlach, Eds. (Springer, Vienna, 2006), pp. 21–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science Translational Medicine.

Blog post
1. R. Andrews, Scientists Vote We Have Entered The Anthropocene Epoch, Earth’s Newest Geological ChapterIFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, The Upcoming Transition: GAO’s Efforts to Assist the 111th Congress and the Next Administration (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. J. M. Siani, thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. S. Dominus, Refusing My ReligionNew York Times , BR10 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleScience Translational Medicine
AbbreviationSci. Transl. Med.
ISSN (print)1946-6234
ISSN (online)1946-6242
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles