How to format your references using the SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paige, D.A. 2005. Ancient Mars: wet in many places 307, 1575–1576.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hyde, P.S., Knudsen, E.I. 2002. The optic tectum controls visually guided adaptive plasticity in the owl’s auditory space map 415, 73–76.
A journal article with 3 authors
Våge, S., Storesund, J.E., Thingstad, T.F. 2013. SAR11 viruses and defensive host strains 499, E3-4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, J.S., Lagrange, T., Reed, B.W., Taheri, M.L., Armstrong, M.R., King, W.E., Browning, N.D., Campbell, G.H. 2008. Imaging of transient structures using nanosecond in situ TEM 321, 1472–1475.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joseph, G. 2012. Doing Physics with Scientific Notebook (The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd),.
An edited book
Jones, D.S.J.S., Pujadó, P.R., editors. 2006. Handbook of Petroleum Processing (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands),.
A chapter in an edited book
An, G., Kim, K. 2008. Real-Time IP Checking and Packet Marking for Preventing ND-DoS Attack Employing Fake Source IP in IPv6 LAN In Autonomic and Trusted Computing: 5th International Conference, ATC 2008, Oslo, Norway, June 23-25, 2008 Proceedings, C. Rong, M.G. Jaatun, F.E. Sandnes, L.T. Yang, J. Ma, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 36–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2015. We’ve Found Liquid Water Flowing On Mars, But We’re Not Allowed To Investigate It [Internet] IFLScience),.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Federal Agencies’ Contracting for Research and Development in the Private, Profitmaking Sector (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office),. Report No.: PSAD-77-66.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alayed, R.A. 2010. Creating a culture of safety using electronic medical records as a tool Doctoral dissertation [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach),.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. 2016. AMC Networks Takes Minority Stake in Funny or Die , B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paige 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hyde and Knudsen 2002; Paige 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hyde and Knudsen 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences
ISSN (print)1674-7313
ISSN (online)1869-1897

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