How to format your references using the SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Logothetis, N.K. 2010. Bold claims for optogenetics 468, E3-4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sutton, P.J., Kusmartsev, F.V. 2013. Gravitational vortices and clump formation in Saturn’s F ring during an encounter with Prometheus 3, 1276.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, F., Lin, J.-S., Liu, K. 2011. Steric control of the reaction of CH stretch-excited CHD3 with chlorine atom 331, 900–903.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ango, F., Prézeau, L., Muller, T., Tu, J.C., Xiao, B., Worley, P.F., Pin, J.P., Bockaert, J., Fagni, L. 2001. Agonist-independent activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors by the intracellular protein Homer 411, 962–965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, J.A., Tasman, A. 2006. Handbook of Psychiatric Drugs (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd),.
An edited book
Omodeo, E.G., Policriti, A., editors. 2016. Martin Davis on Computability, Computational Logic, and Mathematical Foundations (Cham: Springer International Publishing),.
A chapter in an edited book
Jobst, M., Döllner, J. 2008. Better Perception of 3D-Spatial Relations by Viewport Variations In Visual Information Systems. Web-Based Visual Information Search and Management: 10th International Conference, VISUAL 2008, Salerno, Italy, September 11-12, 2008. Proceedings, M. Sebillo, G. Vitiello, G. Schaefer, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 7–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2015. No, That Incredible Atlas V Launch Was Not A UFO [Internet] IFLScience),.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. U.S. Infrastructure: Agencies’ Approaches to Developing Investment Estimates Vary (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office),. Report No.: GAO-01-835.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lastica, J.R. 2012. Why Do They Stay? A Phenomenological Study of Secondary Science Teacher Experiences Doctoral dissertation [Washington, DC]: George Washington University),.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2016. Mets’ Young Starters Come at Bargain Price in 2017 , D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Logothetis 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Logothetis 2010; Sutton and Kusmartsev 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sutton and Kusmartsev 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ango et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences
ISSN (print)1674-7313
ISSN (online)1869-1897

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