How to format your references using the SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sovacool, B.K. 2012. Energy. Deploying off-grid technology to eradicate energy poverty 338, 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burrows, M., Sutton, G. 2013. Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect 341, 1254–1256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alley, R.B., Fahnestock, M., Joughin, I. 2008. Climate change. Understanding glacier flow in changing times 322, 1061–1062.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gazzani, S., Lawrenson, T., Woodward, C., Headon, D., Sablowski, R. 2004. A link between mRNA turnover and RNA interference in Arabidopsis 306, 1046–1048.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henriksen, R.N. 2015. Scale Invariance (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA),.
An edited book
Fleagle, J.G., Gilbert, C.C., editors. 2008. Elwyn Simons: A Search for Origins (New York, NY: Springer),.
A chapter in an edited book
Kahya, E. 2011. The Impacts of NAO on the Hydrology of the Eastern Mediterranean In Hydrological, Socioeconomic and Ecological Impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation in the Mediterranean Region, S.M. Vicente-Serrano, R.M. Trigo, eds. (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), pp. 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2017. Solar Power Installations Grew Almost 50 Percent in 2016 [Internet] IFLScience),.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. NASA: Projects Need More Disciplined Oversight and Management to Address Key Challenges (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office),. Report No.: GAO-09-436T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griffin, J.C. 2012. Animal and soul: Animals in Native American mythologies and the individuation process Doctoral dissertation [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute),.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Becker, J.O., Apuzzo, M., Goldman, A. 2017. Trump Team Met With Lawyer Tied to Kremlin Amid ’16 Race , A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sovacool 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Burrows and Sutton 2013; Sovacool 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burrows and Sutton 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gazzani et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences
ISSN (print)1674-7313
ISSN (online)1869-1897

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