How to format your references using the SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chicurel, M. 2002. Putting a name on it 419, 755, 757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soles, C.L., Ding, Y. 2008. Materials science. Nanoscale polymer processing 322, 689–690.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gorzelak, P., Głuchowski, E., Salamon, M.A. 2014. Reassessing the improbability of a muscular crinoid stem 4, 6049.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Minna, J.D., Gazdar, A.F., Sprang, S.R., Herz, J. 2004. Cancer. A bull’s eye for targeted lung cancer therapy 304, 1458–1461.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu, P.P. 2008. FPGA Prototyping by Verilog Examples (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.),.
An edited book
Hähnel, S., editor. 2009. Inflammatory Diseases of the Brain (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer),.
A chapter in an edited book
Ambrose, C.G., Hartline, B.E., Clanton, T.O., Lowe, W.R., McGarvey, W.C. 2015. Polymers in Orthopaedic Surgery In Advanced Polymers in Medicine, F. Puoci, ed. (Cham: Springer International Publishing), pp. 129–145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. These Creepy X-Rays Will Make You Look At People In A Whole New Light [Internet] IFLScience),.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. West Coast Ports: Better Supply Chain Information Could Improve DOT’s Freight Efforts (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office),. Report No.: GAO-17-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saifman, H.P. 2017. Millennial Nurse Manager Perspectives on Their Leadership Roles in the Hospital Setting: A Phenomenological Inquiry Doctoral dissertation [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University),.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. 2015. Colombia Rebels End Truce After a Government Attack , A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chicurel 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Chicurel 2002; Soles and Ding 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Soles and Ding 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Minna et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences
ISSN (print)1674-7313
ISSN (online)1869-1897

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