How to format your references using the SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koentges, G. 2010. Journal club. A genomic systems biologist muses on how shared DNA mistakes reveal shared cellular ancestry 467, 255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Z., Becker, H. 2013. Ratios of S, Se and Te in the silicate Earth require a volatile-rich late veneer 499, 328–331.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zilberman, D., Cao, X., Jacobsen, S.E. 2003. ARGONAUTE4 control of locus-specific siRNA accumulation and DNA and histone methylation 299, 716–719.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jiang, L., Kiselova, N., Rosén, J., Ilag, L.L. 2014. Quantification of neurotoxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in seafood from Swedish markets 4, 6931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singh, M.P., Huhns, M.N. 2006. Service-Oriented Computing (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd),.
An edited book
Sheiner, E., editor. 2011. Bleeding During Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Guide (New York, NY: Springer),.
A chapter in an edited book
Halvorsen, O.H., Clarke, D. 2011. The I/O Kit Framework In OS X and iOS Kernel Programming, D. Clarke, ed. (Berkeley, CA: Apress), pp. 51–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016. Fantastic Beasts And Where To Find Them: A History Of Monsters, From Werewolves To Hippogriffs [Internet] IFLScience),.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Social Security Administration: Information Technology Challenges Facing the Commissioner (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office),. Report No.: T-AIMD-98-109.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, A.O. 2009. Observing action research processes in practice Doctoral dissertation [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina),.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. 2017. A Rested Williams Shakes Off the Rust , B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koentges 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Koentges 2010; Wang and Becker 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Becker 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences
ISSN (print)1674-7313
ISSN (online)1869-1897

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