How to format your references using the SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. 2014. Europe needs a research leader who will lead 512, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldenberg, C., Goldhirsch, I. 2005. Friction enhances elasticity in granular solids 435, 188–191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mojzsis, S.J., Harrison, T.M., Pidgeon, R.T. 2001. Oxygen-isotope evidence from ancient zircons for liquid water at the Earth’s surface 4,300 Myr ago 409, 178–181.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schaefer, B.F., Turner, S., Parkinson, I., Rogers, N., Hawkesworth, C. 2002. Evidence for recycled Archaean oceanic mantle lithosphere in the Azores plume 420, 304–307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen, J. 2017. Chemiereaktoren (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA),.
An edited book
Schwarz, J., editor. 2016. Atypical Elements in Drug Design. 1st ed. 2016. (Cham: Springer International Publishing),.
A chapter in an edited book
Parikh, R. 2009. Knowledge, Games and Tales from the East In Logic and Its Applications: Third Indian Conference, ICLA 2009, Chennai, India, January 7-11, 2009. Proceedings, R. Ramanujam, S. Sarukkai, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 65–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Evans, K. 2017. Seafood Eaters May Be Ingesting Up To 11,000 Microplastic Particles A Year [Internet] IFLScience),.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Telecommunications: Management and Operation of FCC’s Public Reference Rooms (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office),. Report No.: RCED-88-83.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Born, K.B. 2012. Student and Principal Perceptions of the California High School Proficiency Examination in Community Schools: A Case Study Doctoral dissertation [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University),.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg, E., Stack, L. 2017. Times Square Chaos as Driver Kills a Woman and Injures 22 , A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Goldenberg and Goldhirsch 2005; Macilwain 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldenberg and Goldhirsch 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaefer et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences
ISSN (print)1674-7313
ISSN (online)1869-1897

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