How to format your references using the Electronic Commerce Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Commerce Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferry, G. (2013). Scientific heritage: Science today, history tomorrow. Nature, 493(7430), 19–21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lyon, B. E., & Eadie, J. M. (2004). An obligate brood parasite trapped in the intraspecific arms race of its hosts. Nature, 432(7015), 390–393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghimire, A., Shafran, E., & Gerton, J. M. (2014). Using a sharp metal tip to control the polarization and direction of emission from a quantum dot. Scientific reports, 4, 6456.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
He, X., He, X., Dave, V. P., Zhang, Y., Hua, X., Nicolas, E., … Kappes, D. J. (2005). The zinc finger transcription factor Th-POK regulates CD4 versus CD8 T-cell lineage commitment. Nature, 433(7028), 826–833.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carter, K. B. (2014). Actionable Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cheptsov, A., Brinkmann, S., Gracia, J., Resch, M. M., & Nagel, W. E. (Eds.). (2013). Tools for High Performance Computing 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Balaram, V., Kamala, C. T., Mathur, R., Rao, A. S., & Satyanarayanan, M. (2013). PGE in Road Dust/Top Soil from Major Indian Cities: Implications on Human Health and Environment. In M. Ramkumar (Ed.), On a Sustainable Future of the Earth’s Natural Resources (pp. 85–107). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Commerce Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, November 9). For Male Chimpanzees, It Pays To Have Friends In High Places. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Discontinuance of Social Security Student Benefits (No. 117523). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kafi, W. (2013). The effects of patient demographic variables on cesarean section-related surgical site infection rates (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, March 25). Brookhaven Lab Avoids Cuts in Budget. New York Times, p. 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Commerce Research
AbbreviationElectron. Commer. Res.
ISSN (print)1389-5753
ISSN (online)1572-9362
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction
Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)

Other styles