How to format your references using the Electronic Commerce Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Commerce Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hallonsten, O. (2015). Europe needs fresh focus on big-science projects. Nature, 518(7539), 275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rolston, S. L., & Phillips, W. D. (2002). Nonlinear and quantum atom optics. Nature, 416(6877), 219–224.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rapp, R. P., Shimizu, N., & Norman, M. D. (2003). Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite. Nature, 425(6958), 605–609.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Paschen, S., Lühmann, T., Wirth, S., Gegenwart, P., Trovarelli, O., Geibel, C., … Si, Q. (2004). Hall-effect evolution across a heavy-fermion quantum critical point. Nature, 432(7019), 881–885.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kushner, R., Lawrence, V., & Kumar, S. (2013). Practical Manual of Clinical Obesity. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Mohammad, A. (Ed.). (2012). Green Solvents I: Properties and Applications in Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lair, C. (2011). Morphismes et Structures Algebriques. In P. Salmon (Ed.), Categories and Commutative Algebra (pp. 73–90). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Commerce Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 8). Heroin Use and Overdose Deaths Rising in the U.S. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Aviation Acquisition: FAA Has a Structured Investment Management Approach, but Weaknesses Limit Its Effectiveness (No. RCED-96-156). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington, S. (2010). Counseling students ability to diagnose Asperger’s Syndrome (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, January 6). Lehman Bros. Grapples With Arts Zoning Rules. New York Times, p. 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Commerce Research
AbbreviationElectron. Commer. Res.
ISSN (print)1389-5753
ISSN (online)1572-9362
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction
Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)

Other styles