How to format your references using the Electronic Commerce Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Commerce Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson, K. (2006). Personal finance. Making the most of a good thing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5792), 1456–1457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kimmins, S., & Sassone-Corsi, P. (2005). Chromatin remodelling and epigenetic features of germ cells. Nature, 434(7033), 583–589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Crespo-Hernández, C. E., Cohen, B., & Kohler, B. (2005). Base stacking controls excited-state dynamics in A.T DNA. Nature, 436(7054), 1141–1144.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Watabe, M., Kato, T. A., Tsuboi, S., Ishikawa, K., Hashiya, K., Monji, A., … Kanba, S. (2013). Minocycline, a microglial inhibitor, reduces “honey trap” risk in human economic exchange. Scientific reports, 3, 1685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Gumster, J., & Shimonski, R. (2010). GIMP Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Kerschen, G. (Ed.). (2014). Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schnabel, S., Dahlgren, R. A., & Moreno-Marcos, G. (2013). Soil and Water Dynamics. In P. Campos, L. Huntsinger, J. L. Oviedo Pro, P. F. Starrs, M. Diaz, R. B. Standiford, & G. Montero (Eds.), Mediterranean Oak Woodland Working Landscapes: Dehesas of Spain and Ranchlands of California (pp. 91–121). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Commerce Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 4). Living Near The Sea Can Improve Your Mental Health. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). IRS Operations: Significant Challenges in Financial Management and Systems Modernization (No. T-AIMD-96-56). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, A. M. (2009). A novel role for MUC7 mucin glycoprotein in the innate immunity and genetic propensity of asthma (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2009, May 7). Antiques Dealers Still Scoring Big Sales. New York Times, p. B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Commerce Research
AbbreviationElectron. Commer. Res.
ISSN (print)1389-5753
ISSN (online)1572-9362
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction
Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)

Other styles