How to format your references using the Clinical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Erwin DH. RETROSPECTIVE. Eric Davidson (1937-2015). Science 2015;350:517.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Thorogood R, Davies NB. Cuckoos combat socially transmitted defenses of reed warbler hosts with a plumage polymorphism. Science 2012;337:578–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Asaadi N, Ribe NM, Sobouti F. Inferring nonlinear mantle rheology from the shape of the Hawaiian swell. Nature 2011;473:501–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Park JY, Ogletree DF, Salmeron M, Ribeiro RA, Canfield PC, Jenks CJ, et al. High frictional anisotropy of periodic and aperiodic directions on a quasicrystal surface. Science 2005;309:1354–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Burghardt G, Walls B. Managed Futures for Institutional Investors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Castillo-Chavez C, Chen H, Lober WB, Thurmond M, Zeng D, editors. Infectious Disease Informatics and Biosurveillance: Research, Systems and Case Studies. vol. 27. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Türker N, Toh ZQ, Karagiannis TC, Licciardi PV. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Their Metabolites: Possible Role for Epigenetic Effects. In: Maulik N, Karagiannis T, editors. Molecular mechanisms and physiology of disease: Implications for Epigenetics and Health, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 127–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Imaging.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Traces of Neanderthal Virus DNA Found in Modern Human Genomes. IFLScience 2013. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/traces-neanderthal-virus-dna-found-modern-human-genomes/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Transportation-Disadvantaged Seniors: Efforts to Enhance Senior Mobility Could Benefit from Additional Guidance and Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Owsiak NK. Teacher quality accountability measures: Perceptions of degree and direction of influence on university -based teacher education programs. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Koblin J. ‘The Show That I Was Born to Do.’ New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Imaging
AbbreviationClin. Imaging
ISSN (print)0899-7071
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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