How to format your references using the Clinical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jackson A. Intense equatorial flux spots on the surface of the Earth’s core. Nature 2003;424:760–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hooley CA, Mackenzie AP. Physics. Heavy fermions in the original Fermi liquid. Science 2007;317:1332–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland JN, Okuyama T, DeAngelis DL. Comment on “Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance.” Science 2006;313:1887; author reply 1887.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Malinina L, Malakhova ML, Teplov A, Brown RE, Patel DJ. Structural basis for glycosphingolipid transfer specificity. Nature 2004;430:1048–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang B, Qiu D. Sneak Circuits of Power Electronic Converters. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Venugopal KR. Soft Computing for Data Mining Applications. vol. 190. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Pugalendhi GK, David M, Victoire AA. A Hybrid Approach to Estimate True Density Function for Gene Expression Data. In: Nagamalai D, Renault E, Dhanuskodi M, editors. Advances in Digital Image Processing and Information Technology: First International Conference on Digital Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, DPPR 2011, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India, September 23-25, 2011. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 44–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Imaging.

Blog post
Fang J. King Richard III Suffered Nine Blows to the Skull. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Trustee Arrangements Serve Useful Purpose in Student Loan Market. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia AD. Long-term shifts in adolescent Nicotine reward following early methylphenidate exposure in male and female rats. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Surviving With the Moscow Symphony on $5 a Day. New York Times 2000:E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Imaging
AbbreviationClin. Imaging
ISSN (print)0899-7071
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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