How to format your references using the Clinical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P. Culture: Artistic alchemy. Nature 2014;512:26–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nishide H, Oyaizu K. Materials science. Toward flexible batteries. Science 2008;319:737–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Runguphan W, Qu X, O’Connor SE. Integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism. Nature 2010;468:461–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kramer EM, Lewandowski M, Beri S, Bernard J, Borkowski M, Borkowski MH, et al. Auxin gradients are associated with polarity changes in trees. Science 2008;320:1610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Homer S, Leibowitz ML. Inside the Yield Book. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Wendt K, editor. Responsible Investment Banking: Risk Management Frameworks, Sustainable Financial Innovation and Softlaw Standards. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaidanovskii NL. The Department of Radio Astronomy of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In: Braude SY, Salomonovich AE, Samanian VA, Shklovskii IS, Sorochenko RL, Troitskii VS, et al., editors. A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR: A Collection of Scientific Essays, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012, p. 117–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Imaging.

Blog post
Fang J. Are Chimps Natural Born Killers? IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Honeywell Computer Equipment Supplied to DOD. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tsang SD. The depth range of azimuthal anisotropy beneath Southern California via analyses of long-period Rayleigh-waves. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Fervently French, Pétanque Draws All Ages. New York Times 2007:WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Imaging
AbbreviationClin. Imaging
ISSN (print)0899-7071
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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