How to format your references using the Clinical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knutson B. Behavior. Sweet revenge? Science 2004;305:1246–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giessen H, Vogelgesang R. Physics. Glimpsing the weak magnetic field of light. Science 2009;326:529–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levison HF, Kretke KA, Duncan MJ. Growing the gas-giant planets by the gradual accumulation of pebbles. Nature 2015;524:322–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smith JA, Seltzer GO, Farber DL, Rodbell DT, Finkel RC. Early local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes. Science 2005;308:678–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verdu J. Oxidative Ageing of Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Corcoran T, editor. Psychology in Education: Critical Theory~Practice. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Li KW. A Study of Peer Discourse in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environment. In: Leung H, Popescu E, Cao Y, Lau RWH, Nejdl W, editors. Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2011: 10th International Conference, Hong Kong, China, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Imaging.

Blog post
Hamilton K. What Exactly Does “Instantaneous’ Mean? IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunities Still Exist To Better Use the Mint’s Data Processing Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
HaMai T. The “other” women: What about the experiences of women faculty of color in community colleges? Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leguizamo J. … I Faced a Hostile Audience (Kids). New York Times 2017:AR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Imaging
AbbreviationClin. Imaging
ISSN (print)0899-7071
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles