How to format your references using the Clinical Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van den Heuvel EPJ. Astronomy. Pulsar magnetospheres and pulsar death. Science 2006;312:539–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sotin C, Tobie G. Planetary science. Titan’s hidden ocean. Science 2008;319:1629–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas J, Creamer W, Ruiz A. Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the Norte Chico region in Peru. Nature 2004;432:1020–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jamali M, Kwon JH, Seo S-M, Lee K-J, Yang H. Spin wave nonreciprocity for logic device applications. Sci Rep 2013;3:3160.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kumar V. Mobile Database Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Papantonopoulos E, editor. The Physics of the Early Universe. vol. 653. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Jackson IL, Rubin P, Hadley C, Vujaskovic Z. Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Induced Injury. In: Rubin P, Constine LS, Marks LB, editors. ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment: Volume 1: General Concepts and Specific Precepts, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, p. 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Imaging.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Stop What You’re Doing And Watch These Glorious Ultra-HD Videos Of Earth From Space. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Acquisitions: Use of “Other Transaction” Agreements Limited and Mostly for Research and Development Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maddirala RR. Secure file transfers using mobile device. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Brantley B. An Intergalactic Odyssey via Puppets, Puns and Knock-Knock Jokes. New York Times 2016:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Imaging
AbbreviationClin. Imaging
ISSN (print)0899-7071
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles