How to format your references using the Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L.M. Witmer, Nostril position in dinosaurs and other vertebrates and its significance for nasal function, Science. 293 (2001) 850–853.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Shapiro, M. Hofreiter, A paleogenomic perspective on evolution and gene function: new insights from ancient DNA, Science. 343 (2014) 1236573.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Bleichert, M.R. Botchan, J.M. Berger, Crystal structure of the eukaryotic origin recognition complex, Nature. 519 (2015) 321–326.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Tada, S.H. Spoel, K. Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Z. Mou, J. Song, C. Wang, J. Zuo, X. Dong, Plant immunity requires conformational changes [corrected] of NPR1 via S-nitrosylation and thioredoxins, Science. 321 (2008) 952–956.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.W. Vallin, The Elements of Cantor Sets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
I.M.R. Verbauwhede, ed., Secure Integrated Circuits and Systems, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Capozziello, V. Faraoni, Spherical symmetry, in: S. Capozziello (Ed.), Beyond Einstein Gravity: A Survey of Gravitational Theories for Cosmology and Astrophysics, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 107–164.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomaterials.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Meet The Wild Animals Who Put Their Partners First (Just Don’t Call It Love), IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA’s Implementation of the Expanded East Coast Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y.-C. Hsu, A cultural psychosocial model for depression in elder care institutions: The roles of Socially Supportive Activity and self-transcendence, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; As Race Looks Tighter, Theme Is Truth and Trust, New York Times. (1992) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomaterials
ISSN (print)0142-9612
Mechanics of Materials
Ceramics and Composites

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