How to format your references using the School Effectiveness and School Improvement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for School Effectiveness and School Improvement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt, C. (2015). Immunology: Another shot at cancer. Nature, 527(7578), S105-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berners-Lee, T., & Hendler, J. (2001). Publishing on the semantic web. Nature, 410(6832), 1023–1024.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roditi, H. A., Fisher, N. S., & Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A. (2000). Uptake of dissolved organic carbon and trace elements by zebra mussels. Nature, 407(6800), 78–80.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Poremba, A., Malloy, M., Saunders, R. C., Carson, R. E., Herscovitch, P., & Mishkin, M. (2004). Species-specific calls evoke asymmetric activity in the monkey’s temporal poles. Nature, 427(6973), 448–451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, C., & Meeking, D. (2013). How to Succeed at the Medical Interview. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Badica, C., Mangioni, G., Carchiolo, V., & Burdescu, D. D. (Eds.). (2008). Intelligent Distributed Computing, Systems and Applications: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2008, Catania, Italy, 2008 (Vol. 162). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
de Figueiredo, D. G., & Karlovltz, L. A. (2013). The Extension of Contractions and the Intersection of Balls in Banach Spaces. In D. G. Costa (Ed.), Djairo G. de Figueiredo - Selected Papers (pp. 23–33). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for School Effectiveness and School Improvement.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 2). Concrete Cast of Ant Nest Reveals Huge Underground Metropolis. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. IV, No. 5 (No. 149426). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang, Y. (2017). Sliding Mode Observer Design for Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2016, December 15). TV’s United States of ‘Sieg Heil.’ New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmidt, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Berners-Lee & Hendler, 2001; Schmidt, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berners-Lee & Hendler, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Roditi et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Poremba et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSchool Effectiveness and School Improvement
AbbreviationSch. Eff. Sch. Improv.
ISSN (print)0924-3453
ISSN (online)1744-5124

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