How to format your references using the School Effectiveness and School Improvement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for School Effectiveness and School Improvement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sundqvist, B. (2014). Mapping intermolecular bonding in C₆₀. Scientific Reports, 4, 6171.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domkin, V., & Chabes, A. (2014). Phosphines are ribonucleotide reductase reductants that act via C-terminal cysteines similar to thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. Scientific Reports, 4, 5539.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gélinas, Y., Baldock, J. A., & Hedges, J. I. (2001). Organic carbon composition of marine sediments: effect of oxygen exposure on oil generation potential. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5540), 145–148.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Opitz, C. A., Litzenburger, U. M., Sahm, F., Ott, M., Tritschler, I., Trump, S., Schumacher, T., Jestaedt, L., Schrenk, D., Weller, M., Jugold, M., Guillemin, G. J., Miller, C. L., Lutz, C., Radlwimmer, B., Lehmann, I., von Deimling, A., Wick, W., & Platten, M. (2011). An endogenous tumour-promoting ligand of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Nature, 478(7368), 197–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rim, C. T., & Mi, C. (2017). Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles and Mobile Devices. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Duarte, P. (2016). Lyapunov Exponents of Linear Cocycles: Continuity via Large Deviations (S. Klein, Ed.; 1st ed. 2016, Vol. 3). Atlantis Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Ritter, S. (2010). Riding the Third Wave. In V. Aleven, J. Kay, & J. Mostow (Eds.), Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 10th International Conference, ITS 2010, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 14-18, 2010, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 4–4). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for School Effectiveness and School Improvement.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, March 7). Can You Solve The Murder Mystery Of The Phantom Fire? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Rail Transit: Observations on FTA’s State Safety Oversight Program (GAO-06-997T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watts, K. S. (2008). The Effectiveness of a Social Story Intervention in Decreasing Disruptive Behavior in Autistic Children [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016, November 2). Haunting Lamentation for an Evanescent Now. New York Times, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sundqvist, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Domkin & Chabes, 2014; Sundqvist, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Domkin & Chabes, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Gélinas et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Opitz et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleSchool Effectiveness and School Improvement
AbbreviationSch. Eff. Sch. Improv.
ISSN (print)0924-3453
ISSN (online)1744-5124

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