How to format your references using the Schizophrenia Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Schizophrenia Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Comerio, M.C., 2006. Earthquake anniversary. Can buildings be made earthquake-safe? Science 312, 204–206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Field, J., Fullagar, R., 2001. Archaeology and Australian megafauna. Science 294, 7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Han, Y., Bai, T., Liu, W., 2014. Controlled heterogeneous stem cell differentiation on a shape memory hydrogel surface. Sci. Rep. 4, 5815.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Robinson, E.J.H., Jackson, D.E., Holcombe, M., Ratnieks, F.L.W., 2005. Insect communication: “no entry” signal in ant foraging. Nature 438, 442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGee, G., 2012. Bioethics for beginners. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Jakovác, A., 2016. Resummation and Renormalization in Effective Theories of Particle Physics, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kamakura, S., 2015. Tooth and Tooth-Supporting Structures, in: Niinomi, M., Narushima, T., Nakai, M. (Eds.), Advances in Metallic Biomaterials: Tissues, Materials and Biological Reactions, Springer Series in Biomaterials Science and Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 99–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Schizophrenia Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. Catching Metastatic Cancer Cells Before They Grow Into Tumors: A New Implant Shows Promise [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. School-Meals Programs: USDA Has Enhanced Controls, but Additional Verification Could Help Ensure Legitimate Program Access (No. GAO-14-262). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, E.R., 2015. Technology and adiposity: Effects of television time, video or computer game time, and computer use on body fat among Latino youth (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lasdun, J., 2017. Odd Coupling. New York Times BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Comerio, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Comerio, 2006; Field and Fullagar, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Field and Fullagar, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Robinson et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSchizophrenia Research
AbbreviationSchizophr. Res.
ISSN (print)0920-9964
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry

Other styles