How to format your references using the Schizophrenia Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Schizophrenia Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deweerdt, S., 2012. Comparative biology: Looking for a master switch. Nature 492, S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Person, A.L., Raman, I.M., 2011. Purkinje neuron synchrony elicits time-locked spiking in the cerebellar nuclei. Nature 481, 502–505.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stuphorn, V., Taylor, T.L., Schall, J.D., 2000. Performance monitoring by the supplementary eye field. Nature 408, 857–860.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Takahashi, K.S., Gabay, M., Jaccard, D., Shibuya, K., Ohnishi, T., Lippmaa, M., Triscone, J.-M., 2006. Local switching of two-dimensional superconductivity using the ferroelectric field effect. Nature 441, 195–198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boddy, R., Smith, G., 2010. Effective Experimentation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zimányi, E., Kutsche, R.-D. (Eds.), 2015. Business Intelligence: 4th European Summer School, eBISS 2014, Berlin, Germany, July 6-11, 2014, Tutorial Lectures, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Moritz, M.L., 2014. Electrolyte Disorders in the Newborn, in: Chishti, A.S., Alam, S., Kiessling, S.G. (Eds.), Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases in the Newborn. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 99–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Schizophrenia Research.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Hundreds Of Laboratory-Riased Chimpanzees Are About To Experience Freedom For The First Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Department of Education: Information Needs Are at the Core of Management Challenges Facing the Department (No. T-HEHS-98-124). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dulick, K.C., 2010. Self-neglect among the elderly: Knowledge and perceptions of MSW students (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2016. A Father and a Family, Dissolving Into Darkness. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deweerdt, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Deweerdt, 2012; Person and Raman, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Person and Raman, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Takahashi et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSchizophrenia Research
AbbreviationSchizophr. Res.
ISSN (print)0920-9964
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry

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