How to format your references using the Schizophrenia Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Schizophrenia Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt, S., 2011. Food: The omnivore’s labyrinth. Nature 471, S22-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heinrich, A., Loth, S., 2011. Physics. A logical use for atoms. Science 332, 1039–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hauke, P., Tagliacozzo, L., Lewenstein, M., 2012. Physics. Speeding up quantum field theories. Science 336, 1122–1123.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, S.-M., Pippel, E., Gösele, U., Dresbach, C., Qin, Y., Chandran, C.V., Bräuniger, T., Hause, G., Knez, M., 2009. Greatly increased toughness of infiltrated spider silk. Science 324, 488–492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthier, J., Brakke, K.A., Berthier, E., 2016. Open Microfluidics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Demazeau, Y., Pěchoucěk, M., Corchado, J.M., Pérez, J.B. (Eds.), 2011. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Paireekreng, W., Wong, K.W., Fung, C.C., 2010. Cluster Analysis for Personalised Mobile Entertainment Content, in: Nakatsu, R., Tosa, N., Naghdy, F., Wong, K.W., Codognet, P. (Eds.), Cultural Computing: Second IFIP TC 14 Entertainment Computing Symposium, ECS 2010, Held as Part of WCC 2010, Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010. Proceedings, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 36–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Schizophrenia Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Scientist’s Anti-Wave Guns Could Shrink Tsunamis By 30 Percent [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Airline Competition: Pending Legislation Helps to Address Serious Competitive Problems (No. T-RCED-91-54). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, B.D., 2017. Application of systems engineering principles for analysis of utility baseline development process (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2002. The Bus Doesn’t Stop Here Anymore. New York Times 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (DeWeerdt, 2011; Heinrich and Loth, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heinrich and Loth, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSchizophrenia Research
AbbreviationSchizophr. Res.
ISSN (print)0920-9964
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry

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