How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Polster, Burkard. 2002. “Mathematics: What Is the Best Way to Lace Your Shoes?” Nature 420 (6915): 476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Millum, Joseph, and Ezekiel J. Emanuel. 2007. “Ethics. The Ethics of International Research with Abandoned Children.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5858): 1874–1875.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shapiro, Lucy, Harley H. McAdams, and Richard Losick. 2002. “Generating and Exploiting Polarity in Bacteria.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5600): 1942–1946.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kendrick, K. M., A. P. da Costa, A. E. Leigh, M. R. Hinton, and J. W. Peirce. 2001. “Sheep Don’t Forget a Face.” Nature 414 (6860): 165–166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
He, Zhengyou. 2016. Wavelet Analysis and Transient Signal Processing Applications for Power Systems. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Wu, Anna H., and Daniel O. Stram, eds. 2016. Cancer Epidemiology Among Asian Americans. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Leikin, Mark. 2016. “What Do We Learn from Neurolinguistics?” In The Palgrave Handbook of Economics and Language, edited by Victor Ginsburgh and Shlomo Weber, 121–136. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Ant Fight! Dopamine Turns Workers Into Queens.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Protest Against Award for Computer System. B-178302. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, Lenora. 2010. “A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Needs and Behaviors of Female Caregivers of Cancer Patients at the End of Life: A Theoretical Elaboration.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kepner, Tyler. 2017. “A Racist Gesture Results in a Delayed Punishment.” New York Times, October 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Polster 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Polster 2002; Millum and Emanuel 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Millum and Emanuel 2007)
  • Three authors: (Shapiro, McAdams, and Losick 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kendrick et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Disability Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Disabil. Res.
ISSN (print)1501-7419
ISSN (online)1745-3011
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles