How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Artaxo, Paulo. 2012. “Break down Boundaries in Climate Research.” Nature 481 (7381): 239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, Hyoki, and Sunghoon Kwon. 2013. “Materials Science. Water-Responsive Polymer Composites on the Move.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6116): 150–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma, Babu Ram, Aaditya Manjanath, and Abhishek K. Singh. 2014. “Pentahexoctite: A New Two-Dimensional Allotrope of Carbon.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7164.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lewis, Kevin W., Oded Aharonson, John P. Grotzinger, Randolph L. Kirk, Alfred S. McEwen, and Terry-Ann Suer. 2008. “Quasi-Periodic Bedding in the Sedimentary Rock Record of Mars.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5907): 1532–1535.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Provost, Joseph J., Keri L. Colabroy, Brenda S. Kelly, and Mark A. Wallert. 2016. The Science of Cooking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Koslowski, Peter, ed. 2010. Elements of a Philosophy of Management and Organization. Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gribovskaya, Natalya, and Irina Virbitskaite. 2007. “A Categorical Observation of Timed Testing Equivalence.” In Parallel Computing Technologies: 9th International Conference, PaCT 2007, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia, September 3-7, 2007. Proceedings, edited by Victor Malyshkin, 35–46. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Vaccinating Against Measles Could Also Protect You From Other Infectious Diseases.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Federal Agency Roles and Responsibilities for Emergency Communications Need Clarification. LCD-80-91. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, Valerie Denise. 2014. “Leadership Behavior Practice Patterns’ Relationship to Employee Work Engagement in a Nonprofit That Supports the Homeless.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, Michael. 2017. “‘Brilliant,’ 41, And Lost to AIDS: The Theater World Asks Why.” New York Times, October 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Artaxo 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Artaxo 2012; Kim and Kwon 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Kwon 2013)
  • Three authors: (Sharma, Manjanath, and Singh 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lewis et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Disability Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Disabil. Res.
ISSN (print)1501-7419
ISSN (online)1745-3011
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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