How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sincell, M. 2000. “PLANETARY SCIENCE: Newfound Worlds Hint at Hard-Knock Life.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 289 (5482): 1125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Changeux, Jean-Pierre, and Stuart J. Edelstein. 2005. “Allosteric Mechanisms of Signal Transduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5727): 1424–1428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood, Bernard J., Michael J. Walter, and Jonathan Wade. 2006. “Accretion of the Earth and Segregation of Its Core.” Nature 441 (7095): 825–833.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Shunpu, Wensi Wang, Ju Xu, Daping Chu, Z. John Shen, and Saibal Roy. 2013. “Electrical/Optical Dual-Function Redox Potential Transistor.” Scientific Reports 3 (December): 3391.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stack, Theresa, Lee T. Ostrom, and Cheryl A. Wilhelmsen. 2016. Occupational Ergonomics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Khuri, Sami, Lenka Lhotská, and Nadia Pisanti, eds. 2010. Information Technology in Bio- and Medical Informatics, ITBAM 2010: First International Conference, Bilbao, Spain, September 1-2, 2010. Proceedings. Vol. 6266. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Folli, Raffaella, and Heidi Harley. 2005. “Flavors of v.” In Aspectual Inquiries, edited by Paula Kempchinsky and Roumyana Slabakova, 95–120. Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “A Year Ago, Scientists Cracked One Of Einstein’s Greatest Mysteries — Now A Bizarre New Form Of Astronomy Is Emerging.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Mass Transit: Implementation of FTA’s New Starts Evaluation Process and FY 2001 Funding Proposals. RCED-00-149. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson, Dale Gregory. 2012. “An Application of Geotechnical Techniques to Quantitative Regional Slope Stability Analysis San Clemente, California.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. “Long Security Lines Surprise Fans.” New York Times, August 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sincell 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Sincell 2000; Changeux and Edelstein 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Changeux and Edelstein 2005)
  • Three authors: (Wood, Walter, and Wade 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Disability Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Disabil. Res.
ISSN (print)1501-7419
ISSN (online)1745-3011
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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