How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boger, Dale L. 2015. “ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. When Sugar Is Not so Sweet.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6258): 275–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stebbins, C. E., and J. E. Galán. 2001. “Maintenance of an Unfolded Polypeptide by a Cognate Chaperone in Bacterial Type III Secretion.” Nature 414 (6859): 77–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, Yumiko, James Farquhar, and Hiroshi Ohmoto. 2009. “Anomalous Fractionations of Sulfur Isotopes during Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5925): 370–373.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bernstein, Max P., Jason P. Dworkin, Scott A. Sandford, George W. Cooper, and Louis J. Allamandola. 2002. “Racemic Amino Acids from the Ultraviolet Photolysis of Interstellar Ice Analogues.” Nature 416 (6879): 401–403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nguyen, Triet. 2012. Investing in the High Yield Municipal Market. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Agha, Gul, and Benny Van Houdt, eds. 2016. Quantitative Evaluation of Systems: 13th International Conference, QEST 2016, Quebec City, QC, Canada, August 23-25, 2016, Proceedings. Vol. 9826. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cunnington, Aubrey, Sanjay Patel, and Hermione Lyall. 2010. “Why Are Some Babies Still Being Infected with HIV in the UK?” In Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children VI, edited by Adam Finn, Nigel Curtis, and Andrew J. Pollard, 57–71. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2017. “People With Chronic Fatigue Have A Defective Channel In Immune System Cells.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Scenic Byways: States’ Use of Geometric Design Standards. RCED-95-243. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullin Piette, Abbie J. 2010. “Dialogic Encounters among Health Care Providers in Pediatric Critical Care: A Qualitative, Collective Case Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, John. 2016. “Raising 5 Sons Alone, 3 With Autism, Takes a Toll.” New York Times, November 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boger 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boger 2015; Stebbins and Galán 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stebbins and Galán 2001)
  • Three authors: (Watanabe, Farquhar, and Ohmoto 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bernstein et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Disability Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Disabil. Res.
ISSN (print)1501-7419
ISSN (online)1745-3011
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles