How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steed, J. W. 2000. “Crystals That Breathe.” Nature 406 (6799): 943–944.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Groot, B. L., and H. Grubmüller. 2001. “Water Permeation across Biological Membranes: Mechanism and Dynamics of Aquaporin-1 and GlpF.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5550): 2353–2357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levayer, Romain, Barbara Hauert, and Eduardo Moreno. 2015. “Cell Mixing Induced by Myc Is Required for Competitive Tissue Invasion and Destruction.” Nature 524 (7566): 476–480.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Reguera, Gemma, Kevin D. McCarthy, Teena Mehta, Julie S. Nicoll, Mark T. Tuominen, and Derek R. Lovley. 2005. “Extracellular Electron Transfer via Microbial Nanowires.” Nature 435 (7045): 1098–1101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kenett, Ron S., Shelemyahu Zacks, and Daniele Amberti. 2013. Modern Industrial Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Beatley, Timothy, ed. 2012. Green Cities of Europe: Global Lessons on Green Urbanism. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.
A chapter in an edited book
Hakeem, Farrukh B., M. R. Haberfeld, and Arvind Verma. 2012. “Police and the Administration of Justice in Medieval India.” In Policing Muslim Communities: Comparative International Context, edited by M. R. Haberfeld and Arvind Verma, 59–74. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2015. “What Did Neanderthals Sound Like?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Telecommunications Network: NASA Could Better Manage Its Planned Consolidation. AIMD-96-33. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Felice, Dustin. 2013. “A Phenomenological Study of Teaching Endangered Languages Online: Perspectives from Nahua and Mayan Educators.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, Michael. 2017. “Sale of Albee Collection To Benefit Foundation.” New York Times, June 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Steed 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Steed 2000; de Groot and Grubmüller 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Groot and Grubmüller 2001)
  • Three authors: (Levayer, Hauert, and Moreno 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Reguera et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Disability Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Disabil. Res.
ISSN (print)1501-7419
ISSN (online)1745-3011
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles