How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joyce, Gerald F. 2007. “Obituary: Leslie Orgel (1927-2007).” Nature 450 (7170): 627.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stone, Richard, and Barbara Jasny. 2013. “Communication in Science Pressures and Predators. Scientific Discourse: Buckling at the Seams. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6154): 56–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Muheim, Rachel, John B. Phillips, and Susanne Akesson. 2006. “Polarized Light Cues Underlie Compass Calibration in Migratory Songbirds.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5788): 837–839.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Xiaoguo, Fei Zhang, Xinxin Jing, Muchen Pan, Pi Liu, Wei Li, Bowen Zhu, et al. 2018. “Complex Silica Composite Nanomaterials Templated with DNA Origami.” Nature 559 (7715): 593–598.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitton, Gabriel. 2010. Wastewater Microbiology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brewer, Michael L., and David Marcum, eds. 2008. Proceedings of the 16th International Meshing Roundtable. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Reddy, Narendra, and Yiqi Yang. 2015. “Fibers from Cotton Stalks.” In Innovative Biofibers from Renewable Resources, edited by Yiqi Yang, 13–14. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “How Neurons Regenerate Without Affecting Memory.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. DOT Airline Industry Oversight. T-RCED-88-36. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teater, Merle R. 2009. “Reentry and Reintegration: A Grant Proposal for Formerly Incarcerated Women.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, John. 2017. “Trump’s ‘Carnage’ Label Misses Complex Reality of Many Urban Areas.” New York Times, January 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marris 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kato 2002; Paytan 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stone and Jasny 2013)
  • Three authors: (Muheim, Phillips, and Akesson 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Holland et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Disability Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Disabil. Res.
ISSN (print)1501-7419
ISSN (online)1745-3011
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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