How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kojevnikov, Alexei. 2007. “Russian Science: The Little Ball Made Science Bigger.” Nature 449 (7162): 542.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velian, Alexandra, and Christopher C. Cummins. 2015. “Inorganic Chemistry. Synthesis and Characterization of P₂N₃: An Aromatic Ion Composed of Phosphorus and Nitrogen.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6238): 1001–1004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grirrane, Abdessamad, Avelino Corma, and Hermenegildo García. 2008. “Gold-Catalyzed Synthesis of Aromatic Azo Compounds from Anilines and Nitroaromatics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5908): 1661–1664.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Boyd, Martin M., Tanya Zelevinsky, Andrew D. Ludlow, Seth M. Foreman, Sebastian Blatt, Tetsuya Ido, and Jun Ye. 2006. “Optical Atomic Coherence at the 1-Second Time Scale.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5804): 1430–1433.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belliotti, Raymond Angelo. 2011. Dante’s Deadly Sins. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Strichman, Ofer, and Stefan Szeider, eds. 2010. Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing – SAT 2010: 13th International Conference, SAT 2010, Edinburgh, UK, July 11-14, 2010. Proceedings. Vol. 6175. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pszczoła, M., and J. Judycki. 2012. “Evaluation of Thermal Stresses in Asphalt Layers Incomparison with TSRST Test Results.” In 7th RILEM International Conference on Cracking in Pavements: Mechanisms, Modeling, Testing, Detection and Prevention Case Histories, edited by A. Scarpas, N. Kringos, I. Al-Qadi, and Loizos A., 41–49. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Watch This Lightning Strike In Slow Motion.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Procedures To Safeguard Social Security Beneficiary Records Can and Should Be Improved. HRD-78-116. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zeedick, Danielle Marie. 2010. “The Modified Delphi Method to Analyze the Application of Instructional Design Theory to Online Graduate Education.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Flegenheimer, Matt. 2015. “Piecing Through ‘Utter Chaos’ After Train Crash.” New York Times, February 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kojevnikov 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kojevnikov 2007; Velian and Cummins 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Velian and Cummins 2015)
  • Three authors: (Grirrane, Corma, and García 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Boyd et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Disability Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Disabil. Res.
ISSN (print)1501-7419
ISSN (online)1745-3011
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles