How to format your references using the Safety Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sandholm, T., 2015. Computer science. Solving imperfect-information games. Science 347, 122–123.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brittain, S.D., Rettig, T.W., 2002. CO and H(3)(+) in the protoplanetary disk around the star HD141569. Nature 418, 57–59.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meza, L.R., Das, S., Greer, J.R., 2014. Strong, lightweight, and recoverable three-dimensional ceramic nanolattices. Science 345, 1322–1326.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kerr, B., Riley, M.A., Feldman, M.W., Bohannan, B.J.M., 2002. Local dispersal promotes biodiversity in a real-life game of rock-paper-scissors. Nature 418, 171–174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Forsberg, K., Mansdorf, S.Z., 2005. Quick Selection Guide to Chemical Protective Clothing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Maconi, G., Porro, G.B. (Eds.), 2007. Ultrasound of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Medical Radiology, Diagnostic Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sujetovienė, G., 2015. Monitoring Lichen as Indicators of Atmospheric Quality, in: Upreti, D.K., Divakar, P.K., Shukla, V., Bajpai, R. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Lichenology: Modern Methods and Approaches in Biomonitoring and Bioprospection, Volume 1. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 87–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety Science.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Trouble Sleeping? Scientists Say Go Camping For The Weekend [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Polar Satellites: Agencies Need to Address Potential Gaps in Weather and Climate Data Coverage (No. GAO-11-945T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emenyonu, N.I., 2012. Barriers to HIV care in rural Uganda (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M., 2017. Give My Regards To E Street. New York Times AR37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sandholm, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Brittain and Rettig, 2002; Sandholm, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brittain and Rettig, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kerr et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety Science
AbbreviationSaf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0925-7535
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

Other styles