How to format your references using the Safety Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D., 2002. Neutrino physics: tanked up and ready for action. Nature 420, 737.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marx, F.G., Uhen, M.D., 2010. Climate, critters, and cetaceans: Cenozoic drivers of the evolution of modern whales. Science 327, 993–996.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta, R., He, Z., Luan, S., 2002. Functional relationship of cytochrome c(6) and plastocyanin in Arabidopsis. Nature 417, 567–571.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zimmermann, K., Leffler, A., Babes, A., Cendan, C.M., Carr, R.W., Kobayashi, J.-I., Nau, C., Wood, J.N., Reeh, P.W., 2007. Sensory neuron sodium channel Nav1.8 is essential for pain at low temperatures. Nature 447, 855–858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fryirs, K.A., Brierley, G.J., 2012. Geomorphic Analysis of River Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Curzio, A.Q., Fortis, M. (Eds.), 2008. The EU and the Economies of the Eastern European Enlargement. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jansen, T., Van Hecke, S., 2011. Chapter Five: Merger with the EUCD and EDU, in: Van Hecke, S. (Ed.), At Europe’s Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People’s Party. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 85–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Extreme Droughts Weaken Trees’ Ability To Soak Up Carbon [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Unmanned Aerial Systems: FAA Continues Progress toward Integration into the National Airspace (No. GAO-15-610). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dawood, A.A., 2010. Relationship between mental health and treatment seeking in an urban Muslim community (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr., Palmer, E., 2017. Although Divided, Jury Delivers Guilty Verdict in 2015 Murder of Police Officer. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2002; Marx and Uhen, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marx and Uhen, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zimmermann et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety Science
AbbreviationSaf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0925-7535
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

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