How to format your references using the Safety Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Merlin, R., 2007. Radiationless electromagnetic interference: evanescent-field lenses and perfect focusing. Science 317, 927–929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bloom, P., Weisberg, D.S., 2007. Childhood origins of adult resistance to science. Science 316, 996–997.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ainsworth, S., Prain, V., Tytler, R., 2011. Science education. Drawing to learn in science. Science 333, 1096–1097.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sato, Y., Iketani, M., Kurihara, Y., Yamaguchi, M., Yamashita, N., Nakamura, F., Arie, Y., Kawasaki, T., Hirata, T., Abe, T., Kiyonari, H., Strittmatter, S.M., Goshima, Y., Takei, K., 2011. Cartilage acidic protein-1B (LOTUS), an endogenous Nogo receptor antagonist for axon tract formation. Science 333, 769–773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, S., Liu, Y., 2011. Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Sengupta, A., 2013. Productivity, Separability and Deprivation: A Study on Female Workers in the Indian Informal Service Sector, SpringerBriefs in Economics. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Hansen, M.R., Kristensen, J.T., 2008. Experiences with Functional Programming in an Introductory Curriculum, in: Bennedsen, J., Caspersen, M.E., Kölling, M. (Eds.), Reflections on the Teaching of Programming: Methods and Implementations, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 30–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. New Fossil Evidence Suggests There Have Been 6 Mass Extinctions, Not 5 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Communications: Actions Needed to Ensure Advanced High Frequency Radios Interoperate (No. NSIAD-89-84). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Palmer, C.M., 2010. Intramural scheduling time preferences to increase student participation (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2007. Five Smart Moves and Five Big Mistakes. New York Times F4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Merlin, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bloom and Weisberg, 2007; Merlin, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bloom and Weisberg, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Sato et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety Science
AbbreviationSaf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0925-7535
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

Other styles