How to format your references using the Safety Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shanklin, J., 2010. Reflections on the ozone hole. Nature 465, 34–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., 2003. The formation of the Kuiper belt by the outward transport of bodies during Neptune’s migration. Nature 426, 419–421.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, C., Shang, X.-D., Huang, R.X., 2014. Horizontal eddy energy flux in the world oceans diagnosed from altimetry data. Sci. Rep. 4, 5316.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He, Y., Li, H., Jiang, Y., Li, X., Bian, X., 2014. Liquid-liquid phase transition and structure inheritance in carbon films. Sci. Rep. 4, 3635.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandridis, A.K., Zapranis, A.D., 2014. Wavelet Neural Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ho, T.-Y., 2007. Full-Chip Nanometer Routing Techniques, Analog Circuits And Signal Processing Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Abrão, A.M., Ribeiro, J.L.S., Davim, J.P., 2011. Surface Integrity, in: Davim, J.P. (Ed.), Machining of Hard Materials. Springer, London, pp. 115–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Bizarre Fish Monsters Are Raining Down From The Sky In Alaska [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Weather Forecasting: Systems Architecture Needed for National Weather Service Modernization (No. AIMD-94-28). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yao, D., 2009. In situ activity of NAC11-7 roseobacters in coastal waters off the Chesapeake Bay based on ftsZ expression (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2004. World Briefing | Europe: Georgia: Device Explodes In Capital. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shanklin, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Levison and Morbidelli, 2003; Shanklin, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levison and Morbidelli, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety Science
AbbreviationSaf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0925-7535
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

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