How to format your references using the Safety Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, J.A., 2004. Sustainable hydrogen production. Science 305, 972–974.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, N., Jinks-Robertson, S., 2009. dUTP incorporation into genomic DNA is linked to transcription in yeast. Nature 459, 1150–1153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abel, T., Bryan, G.L., Norman, M.L., 2002. The formation of the first star in the Universe. Science 295, 93–98.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Williams, C., van den Berg, M., Stanley, W.A., Wilmanns, M., Distel, B., 2013. A disulphide bond in the E2 enzyme Pex4p modulates ubiquitin-conjugating activity. Sci. Rep. 3, 2212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pepper, G., Oliver, M.J., 2006. The Liquidity Theory of Asset Prices. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Stuart, J.A., 2013. Bioactive Polyphenols from Wine Grapes, SpringerBriefs in Cell Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Song, L., Zhang, M., Sun, Z., Liang, J., He, R., 2015. Two-Step Greedy Subspace Clustering, in: Ho, Y.-S., Sang, J., Ro, Y.M., Kim, J., Wu, F. (Eds.), Advances in Multimedia Information Processing -- PCM 2015: 16th Pacific-Rim Conference on Multimedia, Gwangju, South Korea, September 16-18, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 45–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety Science.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. The Perils Of A Life In Isolation [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. AIMD-99-72R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Drake, D.A., 2013. Viscoelastic characterization of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester nanocomposites using a response surface methodology (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Karr, M., 2010. JAN. 15, 2006: Thanks for The Memoirs. New York Times F15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kim and Jinks-Robertson, 2009; Turner, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Jinks-Robertson, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Williams et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety Science
AbbreviationSaf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0925-7535
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

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