How to format your references using the Safety Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Safety Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vaux, D.L., 2012. Research methods: Know when your numbers are significant. Nature 492, 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guttman, M., Rinn, J.L., 2012. Modular regulatory principles of large non-coding RNAs. Nature 482, 339–346.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford, E.B., Seager, S., Turner, E.L., 2001. Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability. Nature 412, 885–887.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nishikawa, H., Iga, M., Yamaguchi, J., Saito, K., Kataoka, H., Suzuki, Y., Sugano, S., Fujiwara, H., 2013. Molecular basis of wing coloration in a Batesian mimic butterfly, Papilio polytes. Sci. Rep. 3, 3184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leleux, B., van Swaay, H., Megally, E., 2015. Private Equity 4.0. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Maris, C.W., Jacobs, F.C.L.M. (Eds.), 2012. Law, Order and Freedom: A Historical Introduction to Legal Philosophy, Law and Philosophy Library. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Hanstedt, P., 2014. The Generalist, in: Zepeda, K.P., Mayock, E. (Eds.), Forging a Rewarding Career in the Humanities: Advice for Academics. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 37–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Safety Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. New Methane-Processing Microbes Hint At Common Metabolizing Ancestor [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. USDA Proposal To Acquire Automatic Data Processing Equipment (No. LCD-76-120). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hinckley, M., 2014. Socioecological factors that affect adolescent nervousness and depression (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Porter, J., 2016. Steve Dillon, 54, Comic Artist; Helped Create ‘Preacher.’ New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vaux, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Guttman and Rinn, 2012; Vaux, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guttman and Rinn, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishikawa et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSafety Science
AbbreviationSaf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0925-7535
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

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