How to format your references using the Immunogenetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunogenetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brouwer PW (2012) Physics. Enter the Majorana fermion. Science 336:989–990
A journal article with 2 authors
Hossfeld U, Olsson L (2002) Portraits of science. From the modern synthesis to Lysenkoism, and back? Science 297:55–56
A journal article with 3 authors
Dean R, Bonsall MB, Pizzari T (2007) Evolution. Aging and sexual conflict. Science 316:383–384
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hsieh Y-D, Iyonaga Y, Sakaguchi Y, et al (2014) Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs. Sci Rep 4:3816

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merrills J, Fisher J (2008) Pharmacy Law and Practice. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Hodicky J (ed) (2015) Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems: Second International Workshop, MESAS 2015, Prague, Czech Republic, April 29-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Mangao DD, Thoe NK (2014) Search for SEAMEO Young Scientists (SSYS) – RECSAM’s Initiative for Promoting Public Science Education: The Way Forward. In: Zhang B, Fulmer GW, Liu X, et al. (eds) International Conference on Science Education 2012 Proceedings: Science Education: Policies and Social Responsibilities. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunogenetics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Future Of Rail Travel, And Why It Doesn’t Look Like Hyperloop. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Diploma Mills: Federal Employees Have Obtained Degrees from Diploma Mills and Other Unaccredited Schools, Some at Government Expense. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huger Marsh DP (2012) Perspectives of disciplinary problems and practices in elementary schools. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A (2014) A Play Is Set in a Hospital, in Two Ways. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brouwer 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hossfeld and Olsson 2002; Brouwer 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hossfeld and Olsson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Hsieh et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunogenetics
ISSN (print)0093-7711
ISSN (online)1432-1211

Other styles