How to format your references using the Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peeples MS (2015) Astronomy: Cosmic fog and smog. Nature 517:444–445
A journal article with 2 authors
Raper SCB, Braithwaite RJ (2006) Low sea level rise projections from mountain glaciers and icecaps under global warming. Nature 439:311–313
A journal article with 3 authors
McGraw CM, Samaco RC, Zoghbi HY (2011) Adult neural function requires MeCP2. Science 333:186
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gallarda BW, Bonanomi D, Müller D, et al (2008) Segregation of axial motor and sensory pathways via heterotypic trans-axonal signaling. Science 320:233–236

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Unhelkar B (2005) Verification and Validation for Quality of UML 2.0 Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bouguettaya A, Sheng QZ, Daniel F (eds) (2014) Web Services Foundations. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Weiß N (2013) Institutionalised Co-operation on International Communication: The International Administrative Unions as a Means of Governing Globalisation Processes. In: Löhr I, Wenzlhuemer R (eds) The Nation State and Beyond: Governing Globalization Processes in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 65–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Unfeelability Cloak Prevents Sensing Object By Touch. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/unfeelability-cloak-prevents-sensing-object-touch/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Improving the Collection of Debts Owed the Government. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoffmann M (2015) An exploratory study: Mobile device use for academics. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR, Schmitt E, Haberman M (2017) Trump Chooses A ‘Path Forward’ For Afghanistan. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peeples 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Raper and Braithwaite 2006; Peeples 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raper and Braithwaite 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Gallarda et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleRock Mechanics and Rock Engineering
AbbreviationRock Mech. Rock Eng.
ISSN (print)0723-2632
ISSN (online)1434-453X
ScopeGeology
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
General Engineering
General Environmental Science

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