How to format your references using the Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2005) A question of age. Nature 434:1159
A journal article with 2 authors
Cui X-D, Zheng Y (2014) Unification of the family of Garrison-Wright’s phases. Sci Rep 4:5813
A journal article with 3 authors
Izumikawa T, Sato B, Kitagawa H (2014) Chondroitin sulfate is indispensable for pluripotency and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Sci Rep 4:3701
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen X, Sun K, Jiao S, et al (2014) High levels of SIRT1 expression enhance tumorigenesis and associate with a poor prognosis of colorectal carcinoma patients. Sci Rep 4:7481

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morri G, Mazza A (2014) Property Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Chen L, Kapoor S, Bhatia R (eds) (2014) Intelligent Systems for Science and Information: Extended and Selected Results from the Science and Information Conference 2013. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Overgaard M, Sandberg K (2014) Kinds of Access: Different Methods for Report Reveal Different Kinds of Metacognitive Access. In: Fleming SM, Frith CD (eds) The Cognitive Neuroscience of Metacognition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 67–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) There’s Going To Be A Rare “Strawberry Moon” Tonight. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) School Lunch Program: Efforts Needed to Improve Nutrition and Encourage Healthy Eating. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haffner I (2017) Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) With Loss and an Injury, It’s Just Another Day for the Mets. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2005; Cui and Zheng 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cui and Zheng 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleRock Mechanics and Rock Engineering
AbbreviationRock Mech. Rock Eng.
ISSN (print)0723-2632
ISSN (online)1434-453X
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
General Engineering
General Environmental Science

Other styles