How to format your references using the Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T (2001) Airborne telescope delayed as plane is made ready. Nature 411:729
A journal article with 2 authors
Blasius B, Stone L (2000) Ecology. Nonlinearity and the Moran effect. Nature 406:846–847
A journal article with 3 authors
Callender C, Quinn I, Tymoczko D (2008) Generalized voice-leading spaces. Science 320:346–348
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Baimuratov AS, Rukhlenko ID, Turkov VK, et al (2014) Level anticrossing of impurity states in semiconductor nanocrystals. Sci Rep 4:6917

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young MR (2013) Financial Fraud Prevention and Detection. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Slice DE (ed) (2005) Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Rózsa S, Kenyeres A, Weidinger T, Gyöngyösi AZ (2014) Near Real Time Estimation of Integrated Water Vapour from GNSS Observations in Hungary. In: Rizos C, Willis P (eds) Earth on the Edge: Science for a Sustainable Planet: Proceedings of the IAG General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, June 28 - July 2, 2011. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 31–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Hunting For Living Fossils In Indonesian Waters. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Passenger Facility Charges: Program Implementation and the Potential Effects of Proposed Changes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez Abadia JM (2014) French for Spanish speakers: A contrastive study of English monolingual, bilingual, and plurilingual adult learners of French. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) No Longer Thinking Uniformly. New York Times E5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Blasius and Stone 2000; Reichhardt 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blasius and Stone 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Baimuratov et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleRock Mechanics and Rock Engineering
AbbreviationRock Mech. Rock Eng.
ISSN (print)0723-2632
ISSN (online)1434-453X
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
General Engineering
General Environmental Science

Other styles