How to format your references using the Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gitlin JD (2006) Plant science. Distributing nutrition. Science 314:1252–1253
A journal article with 2 authors
Blackburn TM, Duncan RP (2001) Determinants of establishment success in introduced birds. Nature 414:195–197
A journal article with 3 authors
Lemieux C, Otis C, Turmel M (2000) Ancestral chloroplast genome in Mesostigma viride reveals an early branch of green plant evolution. Nature 403:649–652
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nagpal P, Lindquist NC, Oh S-H, Norris DJ (2009) Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials. Science 325:594–597

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Connors LA, Alvarez C (2012) How Markets Really Work. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dastani M, Fallah Seghrouchni AE, Leite J, Torroni P (eds) (2008) Languages, Methodologies and Development Tools for Multi-Agent Systems: First International Workshop, LADS 2007, Durham, UK, September 4-6, 2007. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Chaimontree S, Atkinson K, Coenen F (2010) Best Clustering Configuration Metrics: Towards Multiagent Based Clustering. In: Cao L, Feng Y, Zhong J (eds) Advanced Data Mining and Applications: 6th International Conference, ADMA 2010, Chongqing, China, November 19-21, 2010, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 48–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Oldest Human-Like Hand Bone May Help Us Understand The Evolution Of Tool Making. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/oldest-human-hand-bone-may-help-us-understand-evolution-tool-making/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Deferral of Energy Research and Development Administration Budget Authority. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estep KL (2010) Outreach Communication by Grassroots Environmental Organizations: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker AL, David Goodman J (2015) New York Police to Strictly Track the Use of Force. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gitlin 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Blackburn and Duncan 2001; Gitlin 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blackburn and Duncan 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagpal et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleRock Mechanics and Rock Engineering
AbbreviationRock Mech. Rock Eng.
ISSN (print)0723-2632
ISSN (online)1434-453X
ScopeGeology
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
General Engineering
General Environmental Science

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