How to format your references using the Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mooij H (2005) Physics. The road to quantum computing. Science 307:1210–1211
A journal article with 2 authors
Gunnarsson O, Han JE (2000) The mean free path for electron conduction in metallic fullerenes. Nature 405:1027–1030
A journal article with 3 authors
Shanavas KV, Parker D, Singh DJ (2014) Theoretical study on the role of dynamics on the unusual magnetic properties in MnBi. Sci Rep 4:7222
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cho S, Kim K-D, Heo J, et al (2014) Role of additional PCBM layer between ZnO and photoactive layers in inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Sci Rep 4:4306

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singer B, Fedorinchik G (2009) Investment Leadership and Portfolio Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gero JS (ed) (2015) Studying Visual and Spatial Reasoning for Design Creativity. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Patil GP, Gore SD, Taillie* C (2011) Estimating Prevalence of a Trait. In: Gore SD, Taillie C (eds) Composite Sampling: A Novel Method to Accomplish Observational Economy in Environmental Studies. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 81–86

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Electrical Shocks Bring Patients Out Of Comatose States For Up To A Week. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Pipeline Safety: Systematic Process Needed to Evaluate Outcomes of Research and Development Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williamson CL (2012) Hispanic female undergraduates perception of nursing as a career choice: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM (2017) A Network vs. the President. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mooij 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gunnarsson and Han 2000; Mooij 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gunnarsson and Han 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Cho et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleRock Mechanics and Rock Engineering
AbbreviationRock Mech. Rock Eng.
ISSN (print)0723-2632
ISSN (online)1434-453X
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
General Engineering
General Environmental Science

Other styles