How to format your references using the Granular Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erwin DH (2005) Macroevolution. Seeds of diversity. Science 308:1752–1753
A journal article with 2 authors
Zarur AJ, Ying JY (2000) Reverse microemulsion synthesis of nanostructured complex oxides for catalytic combustion. Nature 403:65–67
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen F, Lam C-H, Tsui OKC (2014) Materials science. The surface mobility of glasses. Science 343:975–976
A journal article with 5 or more authors
McLellan JS, Marcos S, Prieto PM, Burns SA (2002) Imperfect optics may be the eye’s defence against chromatic blur. Nature 417:174–176

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgado RL-C, Araki M (2006) Spoken, Multilingual and Multimodal Dialogue Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Huang J-S (2006) Dirac Operators in Representation Theory. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou Z-R, Yu H-Y, Zheng J, et al (2013) Effect of the Oral Environment on the Tribological Behavior of Human Teeth. In: Yu H-Y, Zheng J, Qian L-M, Yan Y (eds) Dental Biotribology. Springer, New York, NY, pp 75–115

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How Scorpion Venom Could Yield New Cancer Treatment. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Cybersecurity: Recent Data Breaches Illustrate Need for Strong Controls across Federal Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ferris RJ (2014) Numerical investigations of flow past a partially rotating stepped cylinder. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2003) MOSCOW: THE BALLERINA SUES. New York Times E2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Erwin 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Zarur and Ying 2000; Erwin 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zarur and Ying 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (McLellan et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Computing
AbbreviationGranul. Comput.
ISSN (print)2364-4966
ISSN (online)2364-4974

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