How to format your references using the Granular Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kargel JS (2006) Enceladus: cosmic gymnast, volatile miniworld. Science 311:1389–1391
A journal article with 2 authors
Mulcahy NJ, Call J (2006) Apes save tools for future use. Science 312:1038–1040
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang Y, Kirmizialtin S, Sanchez IC (2014) Dynamic void distribution in myoglobin and five mutants. Sci Rep 4:4011
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sansone G, Kelkensberg F, Pérez-Torres JF, et al (2010) Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization. Nature 465:763–766

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
West BJ, Griffin LA (2005) Biodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Andreosso-O’Callaghan B, Royall F (eds) (2013) Economic and Political Change in Asia and Europe: Social Movement Analyses. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Gerhard O, Wegg C (2015) The Galactic Bar. In: Freeman K, Elmegreen B, Block D, Woolway M (eds) Lessons from the Local Group: A Conference in honour of David Block and Bruce Elmegreen. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 43–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) LightSail has Disintegrated in our Atmosphere. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Executive Guide: Leading Practices in Capital Decision-Making (Supersedes AIMD-98-110). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Backfish M (2013) Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab’s Main Injector. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) Viceroy’s House. New York Times C9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kargel 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kargel 2006; Mulcahy and Call 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mulcahy and Call 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Sansone et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Computing
AbbreviationGranul. Comput.
ISSN (print)2364-4966
ISSN (online)2364-4974

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