How to format your references using the Granular Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keenan TF (2015) Phenology: Spring greening in a warming world. Nature 526:48–49
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore JN, Simmons SF (2013) Geophysics. More power from below. Science 340:933–934
A journal article with 3 authors
Aitken RJ, Koopman P, Lewis SEM (2004) Seeds of concern. Nature 432:48–52
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pagola S, Stephens PW, Bohle DS, et al (2000) The structure of malaria pigment beta-haematin. Nature 404:307–310

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bachmann H, Steinle A (2012) Precast Concrete Structures. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany
An edited book
Cherry KE (ed) (2015) Traumatic Stress and Long-Term Recovery: Coping with Disasters and Other Negative Life Events, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Max MD, Johnson AH (2016) Valuation of NGH Deposits. In: Johnson AH (ed) Exploration and Production of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate: Critical Factors for Commercialization. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 157–172

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) What Is Bitcoin? It Is Not That Complicated If You Ignore The Geek Speak. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) The Intermodal Approach to Transportation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hitchins MG (2017) Domain Disparity: Informing the Debate between Domain-General and Domain-Specific Information Processing in Working Memory. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum WK, Schwirtz M (2017) Amid Rikers Chaos, Jails Chief Often Left Town. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keenan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Moore and Simmons 2013; Keenan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moore and Simmons 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Pagola et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Computing
AbbreviationGranul. Comput.
ISSN (print)2364-4966
ISSN (online)2364-4974

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