How to format your references using the Granular Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ma X (2015) Palaeontology: Hallucigenia’s head. Nature 523:38–39
A journal article with 2 authors
Nechiporuk A, Raible DW (2008) FGF-dependent mechanosensory organ patterning in zebrafish. Science 320:1774–1777
A journal article with 3 authors
Stephens IEL, Elias JS, Shao-Horn Y (2015) CATALYSIS. The importance of being together. Science 350:164–165
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Carrelha J, Meng Y, Kettyle LM, et al (2018) Hierarchically related lineage-restricted fates of multipotent haematopoietic stem cells. Nature 554:106–111

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.G. Upton G (2016) Categorical Data Analysis by Example. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Preedy VR, Patel VB (eds) (2015) Biomarkers in Cancer. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang D, Su Z, Qi K, et al (2015) RPECA-Rumor Propagation Based Eventual Consistency Assessment Algorithm. In: Chen Y, Ienne P, Ji Q (eds) Advanced Parallel Processing Technologies: 11th International Symposium, APPT 2015, Jinan, China, August 20-21, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 60–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Destruction of Amazon Rainforest Visible From Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) The National Aero-Space Plane. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Usborne EL (2012) Sediment and phosphorus dynamics behind weirs in agricultural drainage ditches. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mancuso A, Mueller B (2015) 2 Workers Die When Backyard Fuel Tank Explodes in Westchester County. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ma 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Nechiporuk and Raible 2008; Ma 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nechiporuk and Raible 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Carrelha et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Computing
AbbreviationGranul. Comput.
ISSN (print)2364-4966
ISSN (online)2364-4974

Other styles