How to format your references using the Granular Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Granular Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sincell M (2000) INSTITUTIONAL PROFILE: Scientific Ballooning’s Buoyant Mood. Science 289:534–536
A journal article with 2 authors
Lutz RA, Falkowski PG (2012) Ocean science. A dive to Challenger Deep. Science 336:301–302
A journal article with 3 authors
Kingon AI, Maria JP, Streiffer SK (2000) Alternative dielectrics to silicon dioxide for memory and logic devices. Nature 406:1032–1038
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen Y, Hao J, Jiang W, et al (2013) Identifying potential cancer driver genes by genomic data integration. Sci Rep 3:3538

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavé A (2012) Modeling Living Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Issadore D, Westervelt RM (eds) (2013) Point-of-Care Diagnostics on a Chip. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Porter MD, White G, Mazerolle L (2012) Innovative Methods for Terrorism and Counterterrorism Data. In: Lum C, Kennedy LW (eds) Evidence-Based Counterterrorism Policy. Springer, New York, NY, pp 91–112

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Granular Computing.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Here’s How To Beat The Queues At The Supermarket Checkout. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) GAO’s Views on the Default Task Force’s Recommendations for Reducing Default Costs in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whittle CM (2009) The genomic distribution and function of NFI and histone variant H2A.Z during Caenorhabditis elegans development. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) In Latest Term, Majority Grows To More Than 5 of the Justices. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sincell 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Sincell 2000; Lutz and Falkowski 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lutz and Falkowski 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGranular Computing
AbbreviationGranul. Comput.
ISSN (print)2364-4966
ISSN (online)2364-4974

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