How to format your references using the Robotics and Biomimetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Robotics and Biomimetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nelson MR. Computer science. Building an open Cloud. Science. 2009;324:1656–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mackinnon MJ, Marsh K. The selection landscape of malaria parasites. Science. 2010;328:866–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sinsabaugh RL, Hill BH, Follstad Shah JJ. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry of microbial organic nutrient acquisition in soil and sediment. Nature. 2009;462:795–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liu Z, Wang Y, Ai X, Tu W, Pan M. Photoregenerative I/I₃ couple as a liquid cathode for proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6795.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Trimble MR, George MS. Biological Psychiatry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Bagchi A. Natural Convection in Superposed Fluid-Porous Layers. Kulacki FA, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Itterheim S, Löw A. Your First Game. In: Löw A, editor. Learn cocos2D Game Development with iOS 5. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011. p. 81–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Robotics and Biomimetics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Researchers Image What They Believe To Be Smallest Life Possible [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Homeland Security: Progress Made to Implement IT Reform, but Additional Chief Information Officer Involvement Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 May. Report No.: GAO-17-284.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wulfsberg JC. Singing Turkish, performing Turkishness: Message and audience in the song competition of the International Turkish Olympiad [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. From Spain to Romania, There’s No Respite From the Heat. New York Times. 2017 Aug 9;TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRobotics and Biomimetics
AbbreviationRobotics Biomim.
ISSN (online)2197-3768

Other styles