How to format your references using the Rice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadeem M (2014) Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography. Sci Rep 4:6774
A journal article with 2 authors
Matzke MA, Matzke AJ (2000) Cloning problems don’t surprise plant biologists. Science 288:2318b
A journal article with 3 authors
Randow F, MacMicking JD, James LC (2013) Cellular self-defense: how cell-autonomous immunity protects against pathogens. Science 340:701–706
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rösler C, Köck J, Malim MH, et al (2004) Comment on “Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by APOBEC3G.” Science 305:1403; author reply 1403

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paultre P (2013) Dynamics of Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Martel A (2016) Designing Value-Creating Supply Chain Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Chang W (2010) Fighting Cybercrime: A KM Perspective. In: Chen H, Chau M, Li S-H, et al. (eds) Intelligence and Security Informatics: Pacific Asia Workshop, PAISI 2010, Hyderabad, India, June 21, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 28–30

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rice.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Nobel Laureate Finds Scientific Mistake On Turkish Banknote. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Department of Education: Multiple, Nonintegrated Systems Hamper Management of Student Financial Aid Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barta ME (2009) Culture, customer-centricity, and customer relationship management in an online postsecondary learning institution. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J (2017) Sorting a Comic’s Library of Laughs (and Letters and Bills and …). New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nadeem 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Matzke and Matzke 2000; Nadeem 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matzke and Matzke 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Rösler et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleRice
AbbreviationRice (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)1939-8425
ISSN (online)1939-8433
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science
Soil Science

Other styles