How to format your references using the Rice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stoerig P (2006) Neuroscience. The impact of invisible stimuli. Science 314:1694–1695
A journal article with 2 authors
Chou I-H, Chouard T (2008) Neuropsychiatric disease. Nature 455:889
A journal article with 3 authors
Savaldi-Goldstein S, Peto C, Chory J (2007) The epidermis both drives and restricts plant shoot growth. Nature 446:199–202
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu S, Ho SC, Lam T-P, et al (2013) Development and validation of a lifetime exposure questionnaire for use among Chinese populations. Sci Rep 3:2793

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeod LE (2016) Leading with Noble Purpose. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Moss J, Pini B (eds) (2016) Visual Research Methods in Educational Research. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Cheng J, Berg E (2014) Pediatric Airway. In: Lin F, Patel Z (eds) ENT Board Prep: High Yield Review for the Otolaryngology In-service and Board Exams. Springer, New York, NY, pp 19–23

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rice.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Elephant Seals Shed Mercury Along With Their Fur. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) FAA Staffing: Recruitment, Hiring, and Initial Training of Safety-Related Personnel. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham SR (2015) Using Self-Monitoring and Goal Setting to Increase Swimming in Adults. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A (2014) Snow Brings Days of Tumult for Nursing Home Residents. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stoerig 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Stoerig 2006; Chou and Chouard 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chou and Chouard 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleRice
AbbreviationRice (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)1939-8425
ISSN (online)1939-8433
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science
Soil Science

Other styles