How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bulinski JC. Cell biology. Actin discrimination. Science. 2006;313:180–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jacobsen SB, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. jacobsen@neodymium.harvard.edu. Geochemistry. How old is planet Earth? Science. 2003;300:1513–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Charlesworth JD, Warren TL, Brainard MS. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit. Nature. 2012;486:251–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Stevens J, Blixt O, Tumpey TM, Taubenberger JK, Paulson JC, Wilson IA. Structure and receptor specificity of the hemagglutinin from an H5N1 influenza virus. Science. 2006;312:404–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zhu QK. Power Distribution Network Design For VLSI. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Khan JI. Basic Principles of Forensic Chemistry. Kennedy TJ, Christian DR Jr, editors. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Katz NM. Another Look at the Dwork Family. In: Tschinkel Y, Zarhin Y, editors. Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry: Volume II: In Honor of Yu I Manin. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2009. p. 89–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Real Paleo Diet: Early Hominids Ate Just About Everything [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/real-paleo-diet-early-hominids-ate-just-about-everything/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Cost Of Aerospace Ground Equipment Could Be Reduced. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Sep. Report No.: B-177751.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Funderburk J. Modern Variation in Predation Intensity: Constraints on Assessing Predator-Prey Relationships in Paleoecologic Reconstructions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2016 Jul 28;MM26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Case Reports
AbbreviationJ. Med. Case Rep.
ISSN (online)1752-1947
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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