How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Harvey RP. Planetary science. Carbonates and Martian climate. Science. 2010;329:400–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bokov K, Steinberg SV. A hierarchical model for evolution of 23S ribosomal RNA. Nature. 2009;457:977–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Loudet JC, Hanusse P, Poulin P. Stokes drag on a sphere in a nematic liquid crystal. Science. 2004;306:1525.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Porter JR, Challinor A, Ewert F, Falloon P, Fischer T, Gregory P, et al. Food security: focus on agriculture. Science. 2010;328:172–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gros D, Lannoo K. The Euro Capital Market. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
1. Washio T, Suzuki E, Ting KM, Inokuchi A, editors. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 12th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2008 Osaka, Japan, May 20-23, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tranmer M, Lazega E. Multilevel Models for Multilevel Network Dependencies. In: Lazega E, Snijders TAB, editors. Multilevel Network Analysis for the Social Sciences: Theory, Methods and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 107–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Wedding Bells Or Single Again: Psychology Predicts Where Your Relationship Is Headed [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/wedding-bells-or-single-again-psychology-predicts-where-your-relationship-headed/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Motor Carrier Safety: Preliminary Information on the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Efforts to Identify and Follow Up with High-risk Carriers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Jul. Report No.: GAO-07-1074T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Swinford RR. Adapted dance - connecting mind, body and soul [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kolomatsky M. Career Over, Where to Move? New York Times. 2017 Apr 28;RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Case Reports
AbbreviationJ. Med. Case Rep.
ISSN (online)1752-1947
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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