How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sethna JP. Materials science. Crackling wires. Science. 2007;318:207–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bouhifd MA, Jephcoat AP. Aluminium control of argon solubility in silicate melts under pressure. Nature. 2006;439:961–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kim C, Xuong N-H, Taylor SS. Crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic and regulatory (RIalpha) subunits of PKA. Science. 2005;307:690–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang Y, Cao H, Zhang G, Bougouffa S, Lee OO, Al-Suwailem A, et al. Autotrophic microbe metagenomes and metabolic pathways differentiate adjacent Red Sea brine pools. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1748.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Keegan KD. Biotechnology Valuation. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Müller M, editor. Microdialysis in Drug Development. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sui Pheng L, Rui Z. Conceptual Framework. In: Rui Z, editor. Service Quality for Facilities Management in Hospitals. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 57–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Watch A Tapir Scratch An Itch With His Enormous, Prehensile Penis [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/how-tapir-scratches-itch/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautical Facilities Program: Issues Related to Its Cost and Need. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Mar. Report No.: LCD-75-329.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Small CR. An investigation on the effect(s) of different modes of intervention for weight management on HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol production among United States veterans [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Yablonsky L. Road Scholar. New York Times. 2008 May 18;M226.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Case Reports
AbbreviationJ. Med. Case Rep.
ISSN (online)1752-1947
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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