How to format your references using the Language Testing in Asia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Testing in Asia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petronis, A. (2010). Epigenetics as a unifying principle in the aetiology of complex traits and diseases. Nature, 465(7299), 721–727.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steltzer, H., & Post, E. (2009). Ecology. Seasons and life cycles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5929), 886–887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Skipper, M., Dhand, R., & Campbell, P. (2012). Presenting ENCODE. Nature, 489(7414), 45.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ren, H., Sigman, D. M., Meckler, A. N., Plessen, B., Robinson, R. S., Rosenthal, Y., & Haug, G. H. (2009). Foraminiferal isotope evidence of reduced nitrogen fixation in the ice age Atlantic Ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5911), 244–248.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shapiro, I. M. (2016). Energy Audits and Improvements for Commercial Buildings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Krause, A. (2005). The Basics of S-PLUS. (M. Olson, Ed.) (Fourth Edition.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Huang, R., & Yang, J. (2016). Digital Learners and Digital Teachers: Challenges, Changes, and Competencies. In J. M. Spector, D. Ifenthaler, D. G. Sampson, & P. Isaias (Eds.), Competencies in Teaching, Learning and Educational Leadership in the Digital Age: Papers from CELDA 2014 (pp. 47–56). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Testing in Asia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 23). Here’s What Happens To Your Brain When You Give Up Sugar For Lent. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Review of NASA Contract To Determine Procedures Used in Negotiating Noncompetitive Contracts (No. 104925). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corral, D. C. (2010). A grant proposal: Parent and adolescent support group (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, November 22). Less Than Two Years In, Sanchez Era Has Arrived. New York Times, p. D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Petronis 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Petronis 2010; Steltzer and Post 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steltzer and Post 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Ren et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Testing in Asia
AbbreviationLang. Test. Asia
ISSN (online)2229-0443

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