How to format your references using the Language Testing in Asia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Testing in Asia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Calvert, P. (2007). Materials science. Printing cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5848), 208–209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gault, F., & Huttner, S. (2008). A cat’s cradle for policy. Nature, 455(7212), 462–463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohbayashi, M., Ohki, K., & Miyashita, Y. (2003). Conversion of working memory to motor sequence in the monkey premotor cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5630), 233–236.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pillow, J. W., Shlens, J., Paninski, L., Sher, A., Litke, A. M., Chichilnisky, E. J., & Simoncelli, E. P. (2008). Spatio-temporal correlations and visual signalling in a complete neuronal population. Nature, 454(7207), 995–999.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wen, S., & Huang, P. (2011). Principles of Tribology. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
An edited book
Kirby, W. C., & van der Wende, M. C. (Eds.). (2016). Experiences in Liberal Arts and Science Education from America, Europe, and Asia: A Dialogue across Continents. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Bakir, A., Chesler, G., & de la Torriente, M. (2016). Integrating Third-Party Fitness Trackers and Data Using the Fitbit API. In G. Chesler & M. de la Torriente (Eds.), Program the Internet of Things with Swift for iOS (pp. 119–168). Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Testing in Asia.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 2). The Emotion Centre Is The Oldest Part Of The Human Brain: Why Is Mood So Important? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Transportation Security: Transportation Security Administration Has Strengthened Planning to Guide Investments in Key Aviation and Surface Transportation Security Programs, but More Work Remains (No. GAO-08-487T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Esmaili, G. (2006). Application of Advanced Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Sources and Hybrid Generating Systems (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, March 10). A Rowdy Club Closes, and the Sleepless Rest Easy. New York Times, p. 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Calvert 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Calvert 2007; Gault and Huttner 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gault and Huttner 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Pillow et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Testing in Asia
AbbreviationLang. Test. Asia
ISSN (online)2229-0443

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