How to format your references using the Language Testing in Asia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Testing in Asia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Mapping life-science skills. Nature, 427(6973), 469.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hering, J. G., & Ingold, K. M. (2012). Water management. Water resources management: what should be integrated? Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6086), 1234–1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mavrodiev, P., Tessone, C. J., & Schweitzer, F. (2013). Quantifying the effects of social influence. Scientific reports, 3, 1360.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Subramaniam, S., Sixt, K. M., Barrow, R., & Snyder, S. H. (2009). Rhes, a striatal specific protein, mediates mutant-huntingtin cytotoxicity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5932), 1327–1330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinaiski, E. G. (2011). Hydromechanics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Barbir, F., & Ulgiati, S. (Eds.). (2010). Energy Options Impact on Regional Security. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
de Alwis Weerasekera, H., Griffith, M., & Alarcon, E. I. (2015). Biomedical Uses of Silver Nanoparticles: From Roman Wine Cups to Biomedical Devices. In E. I. Alarcon, M. Griffith, & K. I. Udekwu (Eds.), Silver Nanoparticle Applications: In the Fabrication and Design of Medical and Biosensing Devices (pp. 93–125). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Testing in Asia.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 25). New Research Sheds Light On Underlying Mechanism Of Multiple Sclerosis. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). GSA’s Administration of the Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE) Interim Upgrade Acquisition Policy (No. FGMSD-79-10). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leak, S. C. (2010). Building community capacity to meet the needs of our aging society: Interdisciplinary competency development for professionals (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2005, December 29). It’s Like “Sex and the City,” Only the City Is Moscow. New York Times, p. E3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hering and Ingold 2012; Smaglik 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hering and Ingold 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Subramaniam et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Testing in Asia
AbbreviationLang. Test. Asia
ISSN (online)2229-0443

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