How to format your references using the Language Testing in Asia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language Testing in Asia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Amaravadi, R. K. (2011). Cancer. Autophagy in tumor immunity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6062), 1501–1502.
A journal article with 2 authors
Constantinople, C. M., & Bruno, R. M. (2013). Deep cortical layers are activated directly by thalamus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6140), 1591–1594.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gosse, N. J., Nevin, L. M., & Baier, H. (2008). Retinotopic order in the absence of axon competition. Nature, 452(7189), 892–895.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hierro, A., Rojas, A. L., Rojas, R., Murthy, N., Effantin, G., Kajava, A. V., et al. (2007). Functional architecture of the retromer cargo-recognition complex. Nature, 449(7165), 1063–1067.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pan, G. W. (2003). Wavelets in Electromagnetics and Device Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leon F. de Carvalho, A. P. de, Rodríguez-González, S., Paz Santana, J. F. D., & Rodríguez, J. M. C. (Eds.). (2010). Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence: 7th International Symposium (Vol. 79). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Agneessens, F., & Koskinen, J. (2016). Modeling Individual Outcomes Using a Multilevel Social Influence (MSI) Model: Individual Versus Team Effects of Trust on Job Satisfaction in an Organisational Context. In E. Lazega & T. A. B. Snijders (Eds.), Multilevel Network Analysis for the Social Sciences: Theory, Methods and Applications (pp. 81–105). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language Testing in Asia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 12). Shark Attack Risk Has Fallen Significantly Since The 1950s. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Aviation Security: DHS Has Taken Steps to Enhance International Aviation Security and Facilitate Compliance with International Standards, but Challenges Remain (No. GAO-11-238T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alalshaikh, S. A. (2017). Leadership Styles in Saudi Arabian Universities: Comparison Based on Educational Background (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stubbs, J., & Reyes, R. (2016, September 16). Don’t Waste Your Vote. Trade It. New York Times, p. A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Amaravadi 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Amaravadi 2011; Constantinople and Bruno 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Constantinople and Bruno 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hierro et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage Testing in Asia
AbbreviationLang. Test. Asia
ISSN (online)2229-0443

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