How to format your references using the Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robock A. Nuclear winter is a real and present danger. Nature. 2011 May 19;473(7347):275–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawasaki H, Taira K. Hes1 is a target of microRNA-23 during retinoic-acid-induced neuronal differentiation of NT2 cells. Nature. 2003 Jun 19;423(6942):838–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dicke M, van Loon JJA, de Jong PW. Ecology. Ecogenomics benefits community ecology. Science. 2004 Jul 30;305(5684):618–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mendillo M, Withers P, Hinson D, Rishbeth H, Reinisch B. Effects of solar flares on the ionosphere of Mars. Science. 2006 Feb 24;311(5764):1135–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Staebler P. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Perlovsky L. Emotional Cognitive Neural Algorithms with Engineering Applications: Dynamic Logic: FromVague to Crisp. Deming R, Ilin R, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. X, 202 p. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 371).
A chapter in an edited book
Kos M, Leniček T. The Fetal Human Testis. In: Ježek D, editor. Atlas on the Human Testis: Normal Morphology and Pathology. London: Springer; 2013. p. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rheumatology.

Blog post
Davis J. Onset Of Spring In The UK Is A Week Earlier Due To Artificial Lights. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: National Policy and Strategies Needed to Maximize Public Benefits from Federal Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Nov. Report No.: GAO-07-15.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aslanyan AL. Psycho-educational group for family members of adults with a mental health diagnosis: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M, Belson K. Open Is Drawing Record Crowds, but Fans Are Feeling the Squeeze. New York Times. 2012 Sep 4;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRheumatology
AbbreviationRheumatology (Oxford)
ISSN (print)1462-0324
ISSN (online)1462-0332
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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