How to format your references using the Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mikaloff-Fletcher SE. CLIMATE. An increasing carbon sink? Science. 2015 Sep 11;349(6253):1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jazayeri M, Movshon JA. A new perceptual illusion reveals mechanisms of sensory decoding. Nature. 2007 Apr 19;446(7138):912–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fortes AD, Suard E, Knight KS. Negative linear compressibility and massive anisotropic thermal expansion in methanol monohydrate. Science. 2011 Feb 11;331(6018):742–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Henry Huang XM, Zorman CA, Mehregany M, Roukes ML. Nanoelectromechanical systems: Nanodevice motion at microwave frequencies. Nature. 2003 Jan 30;421(6922):496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balan V, Neagu M. Jet Single-Time Lagrange Geometry and Its Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
De Marco M, Te’eni D, Albano V, Za S, editors. Information Systems: Crossroads for Organization, Management, Accounting and Engineering: ItAIS: The Italian Association for Information Systems. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2012. XIV, 578 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Hordinsky M, Ericson M. Hair Follicle Vascularization and Innervation. In: Blume-Peytavi U, Tosti A, Trüeb RM, editors. Hair Growth and Disorders. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 75–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rheumatology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. First United Nations Space Mission To Launch On A Space Plane In 2021 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Uses Earned Value Techniques to Help Manage Information Technology Acquisitions, but Needs to Clarify Policy and Strengthen Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Jul. Report No.: GAO-08-756.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harvey SL. From “The Man With the Hoe” to “Tobacco Road”: Class, Poverty and Religion and the Southern Tenant Farmers’ Union [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slotnik DE. Zvonko Busic, 67, Croatian Hijacker. New York Times. 2013 Sep 6;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRheumatology
AbbreviationRheumatology (Oxford)
ISSN (print)1462-0324
ISSN (online)1462-0332
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles