How to format your references using the Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jia H. Alliances for scientific success. Nature. 2015 Dec 17;528(7582):S187-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xue Y, Sherman DH. Alternative modular polyketide synthase expression controls macrolactone structure. Nature. 2000 Feb 3;403(6769):571–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thisse B, Wright CV, Thisse C. Activin- and Nodal-related factors control antero-posterior patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Nature. 2000 Jan 27;403(6768):425–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fogg DK, Sibon C, Miled C, Jung S, Aucouturier P, Littman DR, et al. A clonogenic bone marrow progenitor specific for macrophages and dendritic cells. Science. 2006 Jan 6;311(5757):83–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beneke D, Peters M, Glasser D, Hildebrandt D. Understanding Distillation Using Column Profile Maps. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Pachauri S, editor. An Energy Analysis of Household Consumption: Changing Patters of Direct and Indirect Use in India. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. XII, 211 p. (Alliance for Global Sustainability Bookseries, Science and Technology: Tools for Sustainable Development; vol. 13).
A chapter in an edited book
Hsiao CC, Chuang CC, Su SF. Robust Gaussian Kernel Based Approach for Feature Selection. In: Kim YS, Ryoo YJ, Jang MS, Bae YC, editors. Advanced Intelligent Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 25–33. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rheumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Cat Parasite Modified Into An Effective Cancer Vaccine [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Carrier Safety: Federal Safety Agency Identifies Many High-Risk Carriers but Does Not Assess Maximum Fines as Often as Required by Law. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Aug. Report No.: GAO-07-584.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garbarini L. Comparison of the Completion Pathways of Four Categories of Doctoral Students from a Midwestern University [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. A Shoe With Meow. New York Times. 2010 Aug 19;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRheumatology
AbbreviationRheumatology (Oxford)
ISSN (print)1462-0324
ISSN (online)1462-0332
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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