How to format your references using the International Journal of Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lynden-Bell, Donald. 2010. “Retrospective. Allan Sandage (1926-2010).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6012): 1763.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doherty, Colleen J., and Steve A. Kay. 2012. “Circadian Surprise--It’s Not All about Transcription.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338 (6105): 338–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mihalcescu, Irina, Weihong Hsing, and Stanislas Leibler. 2004. “Resilient Circadian Oscillator Revealed in Individual Cyanobacteria.” Nature 430 (6995): 81–85.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Vanlandewijck, Michael, Liqun He, Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Johanna Andrae, Koji Ando, Francesca Del Gaudio, Khayrun Nahar, et al. 2018. “Author Correction: A Molecular Atlas of Cell Types and Zonation in the Brain Vasculature.” Nature 560 (7716): E3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sahalos, John N. 2006. Orthogonal Methods for Array Synthesis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Iida, Shusaku, José Meseguer, and Kazuhiro Ogata, eds. 2014. Specification, Algebra, and Software: Essays Dedicated to Kokichi Futatsugi. Vol. 8373. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tenny, Larry, and Zeeshan Hirani. 2010. “Using Entity Framework in ASP.NET.” In Entity Framework 4.0 Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, edited by Zeeshan Hirani, 115–154. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “The Second Generation Of Stars Keeps An Imprint Of Their Predecessors.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Studies of U.S. Universities’ Research Equipment Needs Inconclusive. RCED-84-105. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeRose, Christopher Todd. 2009. “Electro-Optic Polymers: Materials and Devices.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary, and Ken Belson. 2013. “Seau Had Brain Disease Found in Other Ex-Players.” New York Times, January 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Galizia 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Sander 2012; Militzer 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doherty and Kay 2012)
  • Three authors: (Mihalcescu, Hsing, and Leibler 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Antoci et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Sustain. Energy
ISSN (print)1478-6451
ISSN (online)1478-646X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Process Chemistry and Technology
General Energy
Fuel Technology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles