How to format your references using the International Journal of Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mastalerz, Michael. 2015. “Materials Chemistry: Liquefied Molecular Holes.” Nature 527 (7577): 174–176.
A journal article with 2 authors
Noor, Elad, and Ron Milo. 2012. “Evolution. Efficiency in Evolutionary Trade-Offs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6085): 1114–1115.
A journal article with 3 authors
Law, Rachel M., Richard J. Matear, and Roger J. Francey. 2008. “Comment on ‘Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 Sink Due to Recent Climate Change.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5863): 570; author reply 570.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shi, Yang, Hao Zhou, Xiaoli Zhang, Jingyu Wang, Jiafu Long, Zhimou Yang, and Dan Ding. 2014. “Self-Assembling Choline Mimicks with Enhanced Binding Affinities to C-LytA Protein.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6621.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silverstein, David, Philip Samuel, and Neil Decarlo. 2008. The Innovator’s Toolkit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vermeir, Koen, and Jonathan Regier, eds. 2016. Boundaries, Extents and Circulations: Space and Spatiality in Early Modern Natural Philosophy. Vol. 41. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Borgianni, Yuri, Gaetano Cascini, and Federico Rotini. 2012. “Application of IPPR to the Reengineering Problems of Class 2.” In Re-Engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace, edited by Yuri Borgianni and Gaetano Cascini, 107–128. Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2017. “Things You Were Taught At School That Are Wrong.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. International Space Station: Significant Challenges May Limit Onboard Research. GAO-10-9. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, Kenneth Norman. 2012. “Institutions and Self-Governing Social Systems: Linking Reflexivity and Institutional Theories for Cybersecurity and Other Commons Governance Policies.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Irving, John. 2017. “It Takes a Commune.” New York Times, January 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mastalerz 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Mastalerz 2015; Noor and Milo 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Noor and Milo 2012)
  • Three authors: (Law, Matear, and Francey 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Sustain. Energy
ISSN (print)1478-6451
ISSN (online)1478-646X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Process Chemistry and Technology
General Energy
Fuel Technology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles