How to format your references using the International Journal of Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, Geoff. 2003. “Cosmology: Welcome to the Real World.” Nature 426 (6968): 751.
A journal article with 2 authors
Golder, Scott A., and Michael W. Macy. 2011. “Diurnal and Seasonal Mood Vary with Work, Sleep, and Daylength across Diverse Cultures.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6051): 1878–1881.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, Min, Hong Kang, and Xiangping Li. 2014. “Breaking the Diffraction-Limited Resolution Barrier in Fiber-Optical Two-Photon Fluorescence Endoscopy by an Azimuthally-Polarized Beam.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3627.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Guido, Nicholas J., Xiao Wang, David Adalsteinsson, David McMillen, Jeff Hasty, Charles R. Cantor, Timothy C. Elston, and J. J. Collins. 2006. “A Bottom-up Approach to Gene Regulation.” Nature 439 (7078): 856–860.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shimizu, Hiroshi. 2017. Shimizu’s Dermatology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Das, Sajal K., Cristina Nita-Rotaru, and Murat Kantarcioglu, eds. 2013. Decision and Game Theory for Security: 4th International Conference, GameSec 2013, Fort Worth, TX, USA, November 11-12, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 8252. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fleishman, Gregory D., and Igor N. Toptygin. 2013. “Nonlinear MHD Waves and Discontinuities.” In Cosmic Electrodynamics: Electrodynamics and Magnetic Hydrodynamics of Cosmic Plasmas, edited by Igor N. Toptygin, 163–216. Astrophysics and Space Science Library. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Scientists Trace The Origins Of The Last Two HIV-1 Groups.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. District of Columbia Public Schools: While Early Reform Efforts Tackle Critical Management Issues, a District-Wide Strategic Education Plan Would Help Guide Long-Term Efforts. GAO-08-549T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aguilar, Michelle. 2010. “Latina Single Mothers: Perspectives on Parenting.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Daoud, Kamel. 2017. “What Arabs Have Learned From Syria’s War.” New York Times, July 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel 2003; Golder and Macy 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Golder and Macy 2011)
  • Three authors: (Gu, Kang, and Li 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Guido et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Sustain. Energy
ISSN (print)1478-6451
ISSN (online)1478-646X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Process Chemistry and Technology
General Energy
Fuel Technology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles