How to format your references using the International Journal of Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirkpatrick, Scott. 2003. “Computer Science. Rough Times Ahead.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5607): 668–669.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dziarmaga, Jacek, and Wojciech H. Zurek. 2014. “Quench in the 1D Bose-Hubbard Model: Topological Defects and Excitations from the Kosterlitz-Thouless Phase Transition Dynamics.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 5950.
A journal article with 3 authors
George, A. M., J. Iñiguez, and L. Bellaiche. 2001. “Anomalous Properties in Ferroelectrics Induced by Atomic Ordering.” Nature 413 (6851): 54–57.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, Jung Woo, Jaemin Lee, Cheolho Kim, Chang-Yeol Cho, and Jun Hyuk Moon. 2014. “Facile Fabrication of Sub-100 Nm Mesoscale Inverse Opal Films and Their Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Electrodes.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrington, Peter J. 2010. Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry for Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lakshmanan, Valliappa, Eric Gilleland, Amy McGovern, and Martin Tingley, eds. 2015. Machine Learning and Data Mining Approaches to Climate Science: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Climate Informatics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kulyukin, Vladimir, Aliasgar Kutiyanawala, and Minghui Jiang. 2007. “Surface-Embedded Passive RF Exteroception: Kepler, Greed, and Buffon’s Needle.” In Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing: 4th International Conference, UIC 2007, Hong Kong, China, July 11-13, 2007. Proceedings, edited by Jadwiga Indulska, Jianhua Ma, Laurence T. Yang, Theo Ungerer, and Jiannong Cao, 33–42. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Spectacular Stellar Winds Seen In Highest Resolution Yet.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Drug Education: Limited Progress in Program Evaluation. T-PEMD-93-2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zolfaghari, Sara S. 2015. “The Relationship between Folic Acid, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin B6 Intakes and Depression in Women Who Use Hormonal Oral Contraceptives.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2002. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Anti-Semitic Violence.” New York Times, May 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirkpatrick 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kirkpatrick 2003; Dziarmaga and Zurek 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dziarmaga and Zurek 2014)
  • Three authors: (George, Iñiguez, and Bellaiche 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lee et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Sustain. Energy
ISSN (print)1478-6451
ISSN (online)1478-646X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Process Chemistry and Technology
General Energy
Fuel Technology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles