How to format your references using the International Journal of Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Press, Frank. 2008. “Earth Science and Society.” Nature 451 (7176): 301–303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heller, Ryan C., and Kenneth J. Marians. 2006. “Replication Fork Reactivation Downstream of a Blocked Nascent Leading Strand.” Nature 439 (7076): 557–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Standen, Emily M., Trina Y. Du, and Hans C. E. Larsson. 2014. “Developmental Plasticity and the Origin of Tetrapods.” Nature 513 (7516): 54–58.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, Chang-Liang, Megumi Katoh, Tadao Shibasaki, Kohtaro Minami, Yasuhiro Sunaga, Harumi Takahashi, Norihide Yokoi, Masahiro Iwasaki, Takashi Miki, and Susumu Seino. 2009. “The CAMP Sensor Epac2 Is a Direct Target of Antidiabetic Sulfonylurea Drugs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5940): 607–610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov, Boris M. 2010. Cluster Processes in Gases and Plasmas. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Blass, Andreas, Nachum Dershowitz, and Wolfgang Reisig, eds. 2010. Fields of Logic and Computation: Essays Dedicated to Yuri Gurevich on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday. Vol. 6300. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Janjuha-Jivraj, Shaheena, and Kitty Chisholm. 2016. “Barriers to Progress: Confidence and Bias.” In Championing Women Leaders: Beyond Sponsorship, edited by Kitty Chisholm, 36–54. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “Could Brain Scans and AI Reveal The Mindset Of A Suspected Criminal?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Diffusing Innovations: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986. T-PEMD-91-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burchman, Eon Kriya. 2014. “A Dialogue on Improvisation, Space and Melody: Larry Koonse’s Approach to Improvisation.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feuer, Alan. 2015. “A Campaign to Preserve the Ordinary.” New York Times, April 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Press 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Press 2008; Heller and Marians 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heller and Marians 2006)
  • Three authors: (Standen, Du, and Larsson 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Sustain. Energy
ISSN (print)1478-6451
ISSN (online)1478-646X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Process Chemistry and Technology
General Energy
Fuel Technology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles