How to format your references using the International Journal of Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kelly, Kathryn A. 2004. “Atmospheric Science. Wind Data: A Promise in Peril.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5660): 962–963.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goodson, J. L., and A. H. Bass. 2000. “Forebrain Peptides Modulate Sexually Polymorphic Vocal Circuitry.” Nature 403 (6771): 769–772.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson, James E., H. Jay Melosh, and Richard Greenberg. 2004. “Impact-Induced Seismic Activity on Asteroid 433 Eros: A Surface Modification Process.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5701): 1526–1529.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Berlo, Kim, Jon Blundy, Simon Turner, Kathy Cashman, Chris Hawkesworth, and Stuart Black. 2004. “Geochemical Precursors to Volcanic Activity at Mount St. Helens, USA.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5699): 1167–1169.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooke, Roger. 2005. The History of Mathematics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Parnham, Michael J., Kevin Coward, and Mark D. Baker, eds. 2005. Sodium Channels, Pain, and Analgesia. Progress in Inflammation Research. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Hampp, R., A. Hartmann, and U. Nehls. 2012. “The Rhizosphere: Molecular Interactions Between Microorganisms and Roots.” In Growth and Defence in Plants: Resource Allocation at Multiple Scales, edited by Rainer Matyssek, Hans Schnyder, Wolfgang Oßwald, Dieter Ernst, Jean Charles Munch, and Hans Pretzsch, 111–139. Ecological Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “Mysterious Signals From Center Of The Milky Way Probably Pulsars Not Dark Matter.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Transportation Security: DHS Efforts to Eliminate Redundant Background Check Investigations. GAO-07-756. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ferreira, Tyler J. 2010. “Fragmented: Moving Away from Control.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, Michael, William K. Rashbaum, and Danny Hakim. 2017. “Trump Foot Soldier Sidelined Under Glare of Russia Inquiry.” New York Times, July 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kelly 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kelly 2004; Goodson and Bass 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goodson and Bass 2000)
  • Three authors: (Richardson, Melosh, and Greenberg 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Berlo et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Sustain. Energy
ISSN (print)1478-6451
ISSN (online)1478-646X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Process Chemistry and Technology
General Energy
Fuel Technology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles