How to format your references using the Results in Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Results in Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Maureille, A lost Neanderthal neonate found, Nature. 419 (2002) 33–34.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.M. Bezemer, W.H. van der Putten, Ecology: diversity and stability in plant communities, Nature. 446 (2007) E6-7; discussion E7-8.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Mellman, G. Coukos, G. Dranoff, Cancer immunotherapy comes of age, Nature. 480 (2011) 480–489.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Xue, M.T.H. Do, A. Riccio, Z. Jiang, J. Hsieh, H.C. Wang, S.L. Merbs, D.S. Welsbie, T. Yoshioka, P. Weissgerber, S. Stolz, V. Flockerzi, M. Freichel, M.I. Simon, D.E. Clapham, K.-W. Yau, Melanopsin signalling in mammalian iris and retina, Nature. 479 (2011) 67–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Hochstadt, Integral Equations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1988.
An edited book
K. Zheng, M. Li, H. Jiang, eds., Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking, and Services: 9th International Conference, MobiQuitous 2012, Beijing, China, December 12-14, 2012. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Muraoka, H. Tohmyoh, Evaluation of Mechanical Properties, in: M. Saka (Ed.), Metallic Micro and Nano Materials: Fabrication with Atomic Diffusion, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 93–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Results in Materials.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Gamma-Ray Burst 130427A One Of The Brightest Ever Recorded, IFLScience. (2013).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, DOD, GSA, and NASA: Federal Acquisition Regulation--Reform of Affirmative Action in Federal Procurement, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Jaffer, Harnessing innovation in the 21st century: the impact of leadership styles, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.M. Novick, A Twist on the Neighborhood Bar, New York Times. (2014) LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResults in Materials
ISSN (print)2590-048X

Other styles