How to format your references using the Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boisvert, C. A. (2005). Nature. 438, 1145–1147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaya, M. & Higuchi, H. (2010). Science. 329, 686–689.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wyckoff, G. J., Wang, W. & Wu, C. I. (2000). Nature. 403, 304–309.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Silver, K., Jiang, H., Fu, J., Phillips, T. W., Beeman, R. W. & Park, Y. (2014). Sci. Rep. 4, 6840.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant, R. & McShane, E. J. (1988). Differential and Integral Calculus Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
(2010). Amputation, Prosthesis Use, and Phantom Limb Pain: An Interdisciplinary Perspective New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Galindo, M. F., Saez-Atienzar, S., Solesio, M. E. & Jordán, J. (2014). Handbook of Neurotoxicity, Vol. edited by R.M. Kostrzewa, pp. 639–651. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016). We Mightn’t Like It, But There Are Ethical Reasons To Use Animals In Medical Research IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). To Date, DISH Network Is Cooperating with the Court-Appointed Special Master’s Examination of Its Compliance with the Section 119 Statutory License Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walters, L. A. (2015). A Mixed-Methods Exploration of Employee Attitudes, Awareness, and Satisfaction with Regard to the University Employee Wellness Program. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2005). New York Times. 14LI20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boisvert, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Boisvert, 2005; Kaya & Higuchi, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaya & Higuchi, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Silver et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography
ISSN (print)0108-7673
ISSN (online)1600-5724

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