How to format your references using the Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wileman, T. (2006). Science 312, 875–878.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kneller, E. A. & van Keken, P. E. (2007). Nature 450, 1222–1225.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tellinghuisen, T. L., Marcotrigiano, J. & Rice, C. M. (2005). Nature 435, 374–379.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gupta, A., Gartner, J. J., Sethupathy, P., Hatzigeorgiou, A. G. & Fraser, N. W. (2006). Nature 442, 82–85.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das, J. C. (2015). Power System Harmonics and Passive Filter Designs Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gourbesville, P., Cunge, J. & Caignaert, G. (2014). Advances in Hydroinformatics: SIMHYDRO 2012 – New Frontiers of Simulation Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Waseda, Y., Matsubara, E. & Shinoda, K. (2011). Vol. X-Ray Diffraction Crystallography: Introduction, Examples and Solved Problems, edited by E. Matsubara & K. Shinoda. pp. 107–167. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). Federal Research: Small Business Involvement in Federal Research and Development Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kannanthanathu, A. F. (2017). Wavelet Transform and Ensemble Logistic Regression for Driver Drowsiness Detection. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017). New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wileman, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Wileman, 2006; Kneller & van Keken, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kneller & van Keken, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Gupta et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography
ISSN (print)0108-7673
ISSN (online)1600-5724

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