How to format your references using the Computers and Electronics in Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mira-Perez, J., 2000. Spanish university study ignores research. Nature 404, 222.
A journal article with 2 authors
Samuel, I.D., Beeby, A., 2000. Display technology. Sidestepping the selection rules. Nature 403, 710–711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sigman, D.M., Jaccard, S.L., Haug, G.H., 2004. Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate. Nature 428, 59–63.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Seibold, G., Di Castro, C., Grilli, M., Lorenzana, J., 2014. Spin excitations of ferronematic order in underdoped cuprate superconductors. Sci. Rep. 4, 5319.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibrahim, R.A., 2017. Handbook of Structural Life Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Grannell, C., 2012. The Essential Guide to HTML5 and CSS3 Web Design. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Al Obaidani, S., Al-Abri, M., Al-Rawahi, N., 2015. Achieving the Zero-Liquid-Discharge Target Using the Integrated Membrane System for Seawater Desalination, in: Baawain, M., Choudri, B.S., Ahmed, M., Purnama, A. (Eds.), Recent Progress in Desalination, Environmental and Marine Outfall Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Electronics in Agriculture.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Body Invaders: Caterpillar Edition [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Grant Funds to Eisenhower College (No. GGD-77-47). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shamsai, M., 2006. Prefabricated Cage System for Reinforcing Concrete Members (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robbins, L., Rodriguez, N.T., 2017. Gang Murders in the Suburbs. New York Times MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mira-Perez, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Mira-Perez, 2000; Samuel and Beeby, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Samuel and Beeby, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Seibold et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Electronics in Agriculture
AbbreviationComput. Electron. Agric.
ISSN (print)0168-1699
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Computer Science Applications

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