How to format your references using the Computers and Electronics in Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tishkoff, S., 2015. GENETICS. Strength in small numbers. Science 349, 1282–1283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ju, T., Cummings, R.D., 2005. Protein glycosylation: chaperone mutation in Tn syndrome. Nature 437, 1252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohmoto, H., Watanabe, Y., Kumazawa, K., 2004. Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago. Nature 429, 395–399.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hashimoto, S., Matsuura, T., Nanko, K., Linkov, I., Shaw, G., Kaneko, S., 2013. Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident. Sci. Rep. 3, 2564.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiBerardinis, L.J., Baum, J.S., First, M.W., Gatwood, G.T., Seth, A.K., 2013. Guidelines for Laboratory Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lund, A., Shiotani, M. (Eds.), 2013. EPR of Free Radicals in Solids I: Trends in Methods and Applications, 2nd ed. 2013. ed, Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Hiedanpää, J., Bromley, D.W., 2016. Stakeholders, in: Bromley, D.W. (Ed.), Environmental Heresies: The Quest for Reasonable. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Electronics in Agriculture.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Genetic Links Found Between Schizophrenia And Cannabis Use [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Tank Recovery Vehicle: Status of Program Acquisition and Full-Scale Engineering Development (No. NSIAD-89-156). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, C., 2005. Edgard Varèse and the Visual Avant-Garde: A Comparative Study of Intégrales and Works of Art by Marcel Duchamp (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., 2017. Kelly Presses Conspiracy Theorist in Edited Interview. New York Times B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tishkoff, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ju and Cummings, 2005; Tishkoff, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ju and Cummings, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Hashimoto et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Electronics in Agriculture
AbbreviationComput. Electron. Agric.
ISSN (print)0168-1699
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Computer Science Applications

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