How to format your references using the Computers and Electronics in Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Romanowicz, B., 2008. Using seismic waves to image Earth’s internal structure. Nature 451, 266–268.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorin, D.J., Toste, F.D., 2007. Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis. Nature 446, 395–403.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scaillet, B., Pichavant, M., Cioni, R., 2008. Upward migration of Vesuvius magma chamber over the past 20,000 years. Nature 455, 216–219.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Etcheverry, S., Cañas, G., Gómez, E.S., Nogueira, W.A.T., Saavedra, C., Xavier, G.B., Lima, G., 2013. Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states. Sci. Rep. 3, 2316.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigrist, J.-F., 2015. Fluid-Structure Interaction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Dichev, C., Agre, G. (Eds.), 2016. Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications: 17th International Conference, AIMSA 2016, Varna, Bulgaria, September 7-10, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Rountev, A., Sharp, M., Xu, G., 2008. IDE Dataflow Analysis in the Presence of Large Object-Oriented Libraries, in: Hendren, L. (Ed.), Compiler Construction: 17th International Conference, CC 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29 - April 6, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Electronics in Agriculture.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Developing A Warped Sense Of Humor Could Be An Early Sign Of Dementia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. ADP Systems: Concerns About the Acquisition Plan for DOD’s Composite Health Care System (No. IMTEC-86-12). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williamson, K.M., 2010. The effects of communist policies, the democratic transition, and EU accession on gender equality in Germany and the Czech Republic (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D.A., 2010. Staying in Touch, for Less. New York Times TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Romanowicz, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Gorin and Toste, 2007; Romanowicz, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gorin and Toste, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Etcheverry et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Electronics in Agriculture
AbbreviationComput. Electron. Agric.
ISSN (print)0168-1699
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Computer Science Applications

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