How to format your references using the Computers and Electronics in Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chipman, A., 2007. Swiss on a roll. Nature 448, 525.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abbott, L.F., Regehr, W.G., 2004. Synaptic computation. Nature 431, 796–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berné, O., Marcelino, N., Cernicharo, J., 2010. Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud. Nature 466, 947–949.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Scheerer, P., Park, J.H., Hildebrand, P.W., Kim, Y.J., Krauss, N., Choe, H.-W., Hofmann, K.P., Ernst, O.P., 2008. Crystal structure of opsin in its G-protein-interacting conformation. Nature 455, 497–502.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Batten, L.M., 2013. Public Key Cryptography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zhu, G., 2015. Porous Organic Frameworks: Design, Synthesis and Their Advanced Applications, SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mastrogiovanni, F., Scalmato, A., Sgorbissa, A., Zaccaria, R., 2008. An Integrated Approach to Context Specification and Recognition in Smart Homes, in: Helal, S., Mitra, S., Wong, J., Chang, C.K., Mokhtari, M. (Eds.), Smart Homes and Health Telematics: 6th International Conference, ICOST 2008 Ames, IA, USA, June 28-July 2, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 26–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Electronics in Agriculture.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Fossil Teeth Reveal The Secret Rise Of Mammals – Millions Of Years Before Dinosaurs Became Extinct [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Central Artery/Tunnel Project: Cost and Financing (No. T-RCED-96-218). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, E.C., 2010. Perceptions of youth with diabetes and their parents/guardians about youth eating habits and nutrition-related difficulties (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., 2017. ‘Wow’: Stunned Cable News Hosts Reacted in Real Time to Trump. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chipman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott and Regehr, 2004; Chipman, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abbott and Regehr, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Scheerer et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Electronics in Agriculture
AbbreviationComput. Electron. Agric.
ISSN (print)0168-1699
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Computer Science Applications

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