How to format your references using the Respiration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eckhardt B: Applied physics. A critical point for turbulence. Science 2011;333:165–166.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kliebenstein DJ, Rowe HC: Plant science. Anti-rust antitrust. Science 2009;323:1301–1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pullium JK, Roble GS, Raymond MA: Emergency planning: Be prepared. Nature 2014;514:430.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lang Y, del Monte F, Rodriguez BJ, Dockery P, Finn DP, Pandit A: Integration of TiO2 into the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii during frustule synthesis. Sci Rep 2013;3:3205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitale J: The Seven Lost Secrets of Success. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.
An edited book
Alencar MS: Communication Systems. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Franco J, Kaczer B, Groeseneken G: Negative Bias Temperature Instability in (Si)Ge pMOSFETs; in Kaczer B, Groeseneken G (eds): Reliability of High Mobility SiGe Channel MOSFETs for Future CMOS Applications. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2014, pp 99–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiration.

Blog post
Evans K: Indonesia First Country To Receive EU’s New Timber Licence To Combat Illegal Logging. IFLScience 2016;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: District of Columbia Public Schools: Student Enrollment Count Remains Vulnerable to Errors. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winkelhake B: Verbal argumentativeness: A study of retail store managers 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M: In ‘Julius Caesar,’ an Assassination Echoes Across the Centuries. New York Times 2017;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiration
ISSN (print)0025-7931
ISSN (online)1423-0356
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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