How to format your references using the Respiration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heckenberger M. Journal club. An archaeologist looks at South America’s early complex societies. Nature. 2009 Apr;458(7239):683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ranta E, Kaitala V. Ecology. A leap for lion populations. Science. 2005 Jan;307(5708):365–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chuang Y-C, Wu J-Y, Lin M-F. Electric field dependence of excitation spectra in AB-stacked bilayer graphene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1368.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pushkarsky I, Liu Y, Lyb Y, Weaver W, Su T-W, Mudanyali O, et al. Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr;4:4717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rapaport H. The Literary Theory Toolkit. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Bartl R. Bisphosphonates in Medical Practice: Actions — Side Effects — Indications — Strategies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Feierman JR. How Some Major Components of Religion Could Have Evolved by Natural Selection? In: Voland E, Schiefenhövel W, editors. The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009; pp 51–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiration.

Blog post
Hale T. $2.5 Million Worth Of Rare Scientific Books Stolen In “Mission: Impossible-Style Heist” [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Feb


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Limited Success Rebuilding Staff and Finalizing Aging Aircraft Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fox RN. Interpreting architecture: A Krauszian approach. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Player’s Dream Takes a Detour in the Bronx. New York Times. 2000 Aug;D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiration
ISSN (print)0025-7931
ISSN (online)1423-0356
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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