How to format your references using the Research in Social Stratification and Mobility citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burns, L. D. (2013). Sustainable mobility: A vision of our transport future. Nature, 497(7448), 181–182.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldhaber-Gordon, I., & Goldhaber-Gordon, D. (2005). Schrödinger’s mousetrap. Part 6. Nature, 433(7028), 805.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ganem, N. J., Godinho, S. A., & Pellman, D. (2009). A mechanism linking extra centrosomes to chromosomal instability. Nature, 460(7252), 278–282.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ovchinnikov, I. V., Götherström, A., Romanova, G. P., Kharitonov, V. M., Lidén, K., & Goodwin, W. (2000). Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus. Nature, 404(6777), 490–493.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brook, C. G. D., & Dattani, M. T. (2012). Handbook of Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Yang, J., Ginige, A., Mayr, H. C., & Kutsche, R.-D. (Eds.). (2009). Information Systems: Modeling, Development, and Integration: Third International United Information Systems Conference, UNISCON 2009, Sydney, Australia, April 21-24, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ainoo, A. O., Amegbey, N., & Suglo, R. S. (2009). Environmental Impact of Mining and Ore Processing – A Case Study at Satellite Goldfields Limited. In I. N. Luginaah & E. K. Yanful (Eds.), Environment and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Managing an Emerging Crisis: Selected Papers from ERTEP 2007, July 17-19 2007, Ghana, Africa (pp. 53–64). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Social Stratification and Mobility.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, December 5). Electric Eels Remotely Control the Movements of Their Prey. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). School Bullying: Extent of Legal Protections for Vulnerable Groups Needs to Be More Fully Assessed (No. GAO-12-349). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marquez, H. H. (2017). Social Capital, Academics, and Sense of Belonging among High School Foster Youth (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. (2005, March 16). Arts, Briefly; Opera Dispute at Bolshoi. New York Times, p. E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burns, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Burns, 2013; Goldhaber-Gordon & Goldhaber-Gordon, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldhaber-Gordon & Goldhaber-Gordon, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Ganem, Godinho, & Pellman, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ovchinnikov et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Social Stratification and Mobility
AbbreviationRes. Soc. Stratif. Mobil.
ISSN (print)0276-5624
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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