How to format your references using the Insights into Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insights into Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Pegrum CM (2006) Applied physics. Can a fraction of a quantum be better than a whole one? Science 312:1483–1484
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Vähärautio A, Taipale J (2014) Cancer. Cancer by super-enhancer. Science 346:1291–1292
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Schmauss C, Lee-McDermott Z, Medina LR (2014) Trans-generational effects of early life stress: the role of maternal behavior. Sci Rep 4:4873
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Macgregor S, Visscher PM, Knott S, et al (2002) Is schizophrenia linked to chromosome 1q? Science 298:2277; author reply 2277

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Melville A (2010) Political Atlas of the Modern World. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
1.
Tribastone M, Gilmore S (2013) Computer Performance Engineering: 9th European Workshop, EPEW 2012, Munich, Germany, July 30, 2012, and 28th UK Workshop, UKPEW 2012, Edinburgh, UK, July 2, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Manolopoulos Y, Nanopoulos A, Papadopoulos AN, Theodoridis Y (2006) Processing More Complex Queries. In: Nanopoulos A, Papadopoulos AN, Theodoridis Y (eds) R-Trees: Theory and Applications. Springer, London, pp 69–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insights into Imaging.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2014) Great white sharks can live three times longer than was previously believed. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/great-white-sharks-can-live-three-times-longer-was-previously-believed/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1988) Alaskan Offshore Shipping: Changing Federal Regulation and Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Jackson M (2013) Creating community in a dual immersion program: A grant writing project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wagner J (2017) Big Setback For Wright; Season Ends For Cespedes. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInsights into Imaging
AbbreviationInsights Imaging
ISSN (online)1869-4101
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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