How to format your references using the Insights into Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insights into Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Potrykus I (2010) Regulation must be revolutionized. Nature 466:561
A journal article with 2 authors
Eeva T, Lehikoinen E (2000) Recovery of breeding success in wild birds. Nature 403:851–852
A journal article with 3 authors
Alonso S, Sagués F, Mikhailov AS (2003) Taming Winfree turbulence of scroll waves in excitable media. Science 299:1722–1725
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rugar D, Budakian R, Mamin HJ, Chui BW (2004) Single spin detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy. Nature 430:329–332

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant R, McShane EJ (1988) Differential and Integral Calculus. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Osinga S, Hofstede GJ, Verwaart T (2011) Emergent Results of Artificial Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hawkes D, Kennell J, Booth P, Abson E (2016) The Impact of Motivation Factors on Spending at a Public Sector Festivals Programme. In: Matias Á, Nijkamp P, Romão J (eds) Impact Assessment in Tourism Economics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 67–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insights into Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Do You Hear What I Hear? Amazing Auditory Illusions Explained. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Aircraft Preservation: Preserving DOD Aircraft Significant to Aviation History. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolzinger R (2010) Strengthening Career and Technical Education in the California Community College System during the financial and labor market crisis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Maslin J (2017) Prosecuting For-Profit Law Schools. New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInsights into Imaging
AbbreviationInsights Imaging
ISSN (online)1869-4101
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles