How to format your references using the Research in Post-Compulsory Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Post-Compulsory Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward-Thompson, Derek. 2002. “Isolated Star Formation: From Cloud Formation to Core Collapse.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5552): 76–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sutherland, William J., and Mark Burgman. 2015. “Policy Advice: Use Experts Wisely.” Nature 526 (7573): 317–318.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conrad, Clinton P., Bernhard Steinberger, and Trond H. Torsvik. 2013. “Conrad et Al. Reply.” Nature 503 (7477): E4.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Taki, Faten A., Xiaoping Pan, Myon-Hee Lee, and Baohong Zhang. 2014. “Nicotine Exposure and Transgenerational Impact: A Prospective Study on Small Regulatory MicroRNAs.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sizer, Andrew, Chandrika Balachandar, Nibedan Biswas, Richard Foon, Anthony Griffiths, Sheena Hodgett, Banchhita Sahu, and Martyn Underwood. 2016. Part 2 MRCOG: Single Best Answer Questions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Singh, Kamlesh. 2016. Measures of Positive Psychology: Development and Validation. Edited by Mohita Junnarkar and Jasleen Kaur. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Neumayer, M., H. Zangl, D. Watzenig, and A. Fuchs. 2011. “Current Reconstruction Algorithms in Electrical Capacitance Tomography.” In New Developments and Applications in Sensing Technology, edited by Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Aimé Lay-Ekuakille, and Anton Fuchs, 65–106. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Post-Compulsory Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2015. “Unexplainable UFO Phenomena To Be Scientifically Analyzed In New Project.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. [Question Concerning Protest Under Army IFB for Dependent School Transportation]. B-221710. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales, Daniela Sofia. 2012. “Identifying Factors and Quantifying Their Impact on Transportation Costs of Pre-Processes Biomass.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson, Linda. 2015. “Internal Injuries.” New York Times, May 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ward-Thompson 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ward-Thompson 2002; Sutherland and Burgman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sutherland and Burgman 2015)
  • Three authors: (Conrad, Steinberger, and Torsvik 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Taki et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Post-Compulsory Education
ISSN (print)1359-6748
ISSN (online)1747-5112

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