How to format your references using the Research in Post-Compulsory Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Post-Compulsory Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keppler, Hans. 2014. “Geology: Earth’s Deep Water Reservoir.” Nature 507 (7491): 174–175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galloway, Laura F., and Julie R. Etterson. 2007. “Transgenerational Plasticity Is Adaptive in the Wild.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5853): 1134–1136.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mercader, Julio, Melissa Panger, and Christophe Boesch. 2002. “Excavation of a Chimpanzee Stone Tool Site in the African Rainforest.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5572): 1452–1455.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dai, Wei, Seong Jin Kim, Won-Kyeong Seong, Sang Hoon Kim, Kwang-Ryeol Lee, Ho-Young Kim, and Myoung-Woon Moon. 2013. “Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability.” Scientific Reports 3: 2524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chassaing, Rulph. 2004. Digital Signal Processing and Applications with the C6713 and C6416 DSK. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo, Gunilla Borgefors, and Robin Strand, eds. 2013. Mathematical Morphology and Its Applications to Signal and Image Processing: 11th International Symposium, ISMM 2013, Uppsala, Sweden, May 27-29, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 7883. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Balakrishnan, Hamsa, John-Paul Clarke, Eric M. Feron, R. John Hansman, and Hernando Jimenez. 2016. “Challenges in Aerospace Decision and Control: Air Transportation Systems.” In Advances in Control System Technology for Aerospace Applications, edited by Eric Feron, 109–136. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Post-Compulsory Education.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Our Slow, Uncertain Brains Are Still Better Than Computers – Here’s Why.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Aviation Infrastructure: Feasibility of Using Alternate Means to Satisfy Requirements of Alaska National Airspace System Interfacility Communications System (ANICS) Phase II. RCED-00-110R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sponsel, Henrik. 2010. “Was Sagte Dieser Schiller (Damals)? Schillers Antworten Auf Seine Kritiker Nach 1945.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton’s Camp Says It Is Wary Of Perot Inroads.” New York Times, October 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keppler 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Keppler 2014; Galloway and Etterson 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galloway and Etterson 2007)
  • Three authors: (Mercader, Panger, and Boesch 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dai et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Post-Compulsory Education
ISSN (print)1359-6748
ISSN (online)1747-5112

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