How to format your references using the Computer Vision and Image Understanding citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Vision and Image Understanding. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Derby, B., 2012. Printing and prototyping of tissues and scaffolds. Science 338, 921–926.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peale, S.J., Lee, M.H., 2002. A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean satellites. Science 298, 593–597.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jop, P., Forterre, Y., Pouliquen, O., 2006. A constitutive law for dense granular flows. Nature 441, 727–730.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hasegawa, Y., Loidl, R., Badurek, G., Baron, M., Rauch, H., 2003. Violation of a Bell-like inequality in single-neutron interferometry. Nature 425, 45–48.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kunz, W., 2012. Do Species Exist? Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Schirmer, E.C., de las Heras, J.I. (Eds.), 2014. Cancer Biology and the Nuclear Envelope: Recent Advances May Elucidate Past Paradoxes, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kautzner, J., Wichterle, D., 2007. Radiofrequency Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter: Who and When?, in: Gulizia, M.M. (Ed.), Current News in Cardiology: Proceedings of the Mediterranean Cardiology Meeting (Taormina, May 20–22, 2007). Springer, Milano, pp. 23–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Vision and Image Understanding.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. Distant Exoplanets Around Other Stars More Likely To Be Ice Giants Like Neptune [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Risk and Control of the Software Maintenance Process (No. 132203). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katz, R.L., 2014. Graduate nursing students’ perceptions regarding caring for patients with HIV (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D., 2008. Smoked. New York Times BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Derby, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Derby, 2012; Peale and Lee, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peale and Lee, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Hasegawa et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Vision and Image Understanding
AbbreviationComput. Vis. Image Underst.
ISSN (print)1077-3142
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

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