How to format your references using the Computer Vision and Image Understanding citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Vision and Image Understanding. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willner, I., 2002. Tech.Sight. Bioelectronics. Biomaterials for sensors, fuel cells, and circuitry. Science 298, 2407–2408.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ehrenfreund, P., Foing, B., 2015. Astrochemistry: Fullerene solves an interstellar puzzle. Nature 523, 296–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bakshy, E., Messing, S., Adamic, L.A., 2015. Political science. Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook. Science 348, 1130–1132.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wei, D., Li, H.-O., Cao, G., Luo, G., Zheng, Z.-X., Tu, T., Xiao, M., Guo, G.-C., Jiang, H.-W., Guo, G.-P., 2013. Tuning inter-dot tunnel coupling of an etched graphene double quantum dot by adjacent metal gates. Sci. Rep. 3, 3175.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme, R., 2013. Flows and Chemical Reactions in Homogeneous Mixtures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Boër, C.R., 2013. Mass Customization and Sustainability: An assessment framework and industrial implementation. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Strasburger, H., Rentschler, I., 2007. Pattern Recognition in Direct and Indirect View, in: Osaka, N., Rentschler, I., Biederman, I. (Eds.), Object Recognition, Attention, and Action. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 41–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Vision and Image Understanding.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Common Painkiller Could Make You Less Able To Feel Empathy [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1985. Legislative Developments (No. 126478). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, J.M., 2013. Service learning: Providing the building blocks for a socially responsible nursing role (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ziegler, M., 2016. Where the Pro-Life Movement Goes Next. New York Times SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willner, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ehrenfreund and Foing, 2015; Willner, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ehrenfreund and Foing, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wei et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Vision and Image Understanding
AbbreviationComput. Vis. Image Underst.
ISSN (print)1077-3142
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

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