How to format your references using the Computer Vision and Image Understanding citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Vision and Image Understanding. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bankaitis, V.A., 2002. Cell biology. Slick recruitment to the Golgi. Science 295, 290–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seeber, L., Armbruster, J.G., 2000. Earthquakes as beacons of stress change. Nature 407, 69–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doligez, B., Danchin, E., Clobert, J., 2002. Public information and breeding habitat selection in a wild bird population. Science 297, 1168–1170.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Woodard, J.D., Sherrick, B.J., Atwood, D.M., Blair, R., Fogel, G., Goeser, N., Gold, B., Lewis, J., Mattson, C., Moseley, J., O’Mara, C., Piotti, J., Salas, B., Scarlett, L., Duncanson, K.W., Yoder, F., 2018. The power of agricultural data. Science 362, 410–411.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox, D.A., 2004. Galois Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Al-Begain, K., Fiems, D., Horváth, G. (Eds.), 2009. Analytical and Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Applications: 16th International Conference, ASMTA 2009, Madrid, Spain, June 9-12, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Prokou, E., 2010. University Reform in Greece: A Shift from Intrinsic to Extrinsic Values, in: Mattheou, D. (Ed.), Changing Educational Landscapes: Educational Policies, Schooling Systems and Higher Education - a Comparative Perspective. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 59–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Vision and Image Understanding.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. Why Losing A Dog Can Be Harder Than Losing A Relative Or Friend [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Improvements Needed in NASA’s Estimating and Reporting of Program Costs (No. 093832). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Fossen, L., 2015. The communicative use of iconic face drawings to express emotional and evaluative statements in persons with aphasia (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lovell, J., 2013. The World, Still Spinning. New York Times MM36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bankaitis, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bankaitis, 2002; Seeber and Armbruster, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seeber and Armbruster, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Woodard et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Vision and Image Understanding
AbbreviationComput. Vis. Image Underst.
ISSN (print)1077-3142
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing

Other styles