How to format your references using the Lifetime Data Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lifetime Data Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sawyers C (2004) Targeted cancer therapy. Nature 432:294–297
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto K, Tanaka K (2004) Neuroscience. Conflict and cognitive control. Science 303:969–970
A journal article with 3 authors
Murtagh GJ, Dyer PS, Crittenden PD (2000) Sex and the single lichen. Nature 404:564
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shin J-W, Hammer NI, Diken EG, et al (2004) Infrared signature of structures associated with the H+(H2O)n (n = 6 to 27) clusters. Science 304:1137–1140

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith JDH, Romanowska AB (1999) Post-Modern Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mansour S (2013) Comprehensive and Clinical Anatomy of the Middle Ear. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Stadtmüller S, Cardoso J, Junghans M (2015) Service Semantics. In: Cardoso J, Fromm H, Nickel S, et al. (eds) Fundamentals of Service Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 137–178

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lifetime Data Analysis.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Why Danger Is Exciting – But Only To Some People. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017) District of Columbia Charter Schools: Multi-Agency Plan Needed to Continue Progress Addressing High and Disproportionate Discipline Rates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kramer-Duffield J (2010) Beliefs and uses of tagging among undergraduates. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2006) Justices Reaffirm Abortion Access For Emergencies. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sawyers 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Matsumoto and Tanaka 2004; Sawyers 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsumoto and Tanaka 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Shin et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLifetime Data Analysis
AbbreviationLifetime Data Anal.
ISSN (print)1380-7870
ISSN (online)1572-9249
ScopeApplied Mathematics
General Medicine

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