How to format your references using the Lifetime Data Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lifetime Data Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roelfsema PR (2002) Do neurons predict the future? Science 295:227
A journal article with 2 authors
Krumholz MR, McKee CF (2008) A minimum column density of 1 g cm(-2) for massive star formation. Nature 451:1082–1084
A journal article with 3 authors
ffrench-Constant C, Colognato H, Franklin RJM (2004) Neuroscience. The mysteries of myelin unwrapped. Science 304:688–689
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Waters MR, Forman SL, Jennings TA, et al (2011) The Buttermilk Creek complex and the origins of Clovis at the Debra L. Friedkin site, Texas. Science 331:1599–1603

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe OC (2013) Elements of Random Walk and Diffusion Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bebis G, Boyle R, Parvin B, et al (eds) (2012) Advances in Visual Computing: 8th International Symposium, ISVC 2012, Rethymnon, Crete, Greece, July 16-18, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Parkhill R, Belton V, Bititci U, et al (2010) Using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis to Aid the Selection of Enterprise Resource Planning Software: A Case Study. In: Howlett RJ (ed) Innovation through Knowledge Transfer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lifetime Data Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Why Does New York Have The Best Bagels? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) NASA Facilities: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins K (2014) Learning to live in the layers: Traveling soul’s way through poetry. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2016) The Here and Now and the Hereafter: Getting to Know the Man in the Makeup. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roelfsema 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Roelfsema 2002; Krumholz and McKee 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krumholz and McKee 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Waters et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleLifetime Data Analysis
AbbreviationLifetime Data Anal.
ISSN (print)1380-7870
ISSN (online)1572-9249
ScopeApplied Mathematics
General Medicine

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