How to format your references using the Lifetime Data Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lifetime Data Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feinberg AP (2007) Phenotypic plasticity and the epigenetics of human disease. Nature 447:433–440
A journal article with 2 authors
Kovaleva EG, Lipscomb JD (2007) Crystal structures of Fe2+ dioxygenase superoxo, alkylperoxo, and bound product intermediates. Science 316:453–457
A journal article with 3 authors
Braunschweig H, Radacki K, Schneider A (2010) Oxoboryl complexes: boron-oxygen triple bonds stabilized in the coordination sphere of platinum. Science 328:345–347
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Asahi R, Morikawa T, Ohwaki T, et al (2001) Visible-light photocatalysis in nitrogen-doped titanium oxides. Science 293:269–271

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitai A (2011) Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes: The role of the PN junction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sheiner E (ed) (2011) Bleeding During Pregnancy: A Comprehensive Guide. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Coughlan JM, Shen H (2012) The Crosswatch Traffic Intersection Analyzer: A Roadmap for the Future. In: Miesenberger K, Karshmer A, Penaz P, Zagler W (eds) Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 13th International Conference, ICCHP 2012, Linz, Austria, July 11-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 25–28

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lifetime Data Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Researchers Getting Closer To Proving Gravitational Waves From Neutron Stars. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/researchers-getting-closer-proving-gravitational-waves-neutron-stars/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Motor Carriers: Better Information Needed to Assess Effectiveness and Efficiency of Safety Interventions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carver A (2017) From under the blanket. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R, Mueller B (2015) Defiant Pledge Fought Back in Fatal Hazing, Report Says. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Feinberg 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kovaleva and Lipscomb 2007; Feinberg 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kovaleva and Lipscomb 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Asahi et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLifetime Data Analysis
AbbreviationLifetime Data Anal.
ISSN (print)1380-7870
ISSN (online)1572-9249
ScopeApplied Mathematics
General Medicine

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