How to format your references using the Lifetime Data Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lifetime Data Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brook E (2012) Climate change. The ice age carbon puzzle. Science 336:682–683
A journal article with 2 authors
Xiang Y, Kobilka BK (2003) Myocyte adrenoceptor signaling pathways. Science 300:1530–1532
A journal article with 3 authors
LaDeau SL, Kilpatrick AM, Marra PP (2007) West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature 447:710–713
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kuhr S, Alt W, Schrader D, et al (2001) Deterministic delivery of a single atom. Science 293:278–280

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sarker SD, Nahar L (2007) Chemistry for Pharmacy Students. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., West Sussex, England
An edited book
Thomas EA (ed) (2016) Broken Pumps and Promises: Incentivizing Impact in Environmental Health, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Ahlswede R (2016) Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems. In: Ahlswede A, Althöfer I, Deppe C, Tamm U (eds) Hiding Data - Selected Topics: Rudolf Ahlswede’s Lectures on Information Theory 3. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 225–336

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lifetime Data Analysis.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Granddad The Lungfish, World’s Oldest Aquarium Fish, Dies At Ridiculously Old Age. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Contract Award Practices: Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Generally Observes Competitive Principles. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glasgow HL (2015) Design and Selection of Probes for In Vivo Molecular Targeting and Imaging. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meyer JA, Meyer LR (2007) Abolish Parole. New York Times 14CT15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brook 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Xiang and Kobilka 2003; Brook 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xiang and Kobilka 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kuhr et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLifetime Data Analysis
AbbreviationLifetime Data Anal.
ISSN (print)1380-7870
ISSN (online)1572-9249
ScopeApplied Mathematics
General Medicine

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