How to format your references using the Lifetime Data Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lifetime Data Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ke D-G (2013) Unifying complexity and information. Sci Rep 3:1585
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergman A, Siegal ML (2003) Evolutionary capacitance as a general feature of complex gene networks. Nature 424:549–552
A journal article with 3 authors
Ridgwell AJ, Kennedy MJ, Caldeira K (2003) Carbonate deposition, climate stability, and Neoproterozoic ice ages. Science 302:859–862
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cowley MA, Smart JL, Rubinstein M, et al (2001) Leptin activates anorexigenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus. Nature 411:480–484

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tardu S (2011) Statistical Approach to Wall Turbulence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Andrienko N (2006) Exploratory Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Data: A Systematic Approach. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Wefel S, Molitor P (2009) Client Hardware-Token Based Single Sign-On over Several Servers without Trusted Online Third Party Server. In: Park JH, Zhan J, Lee C, et al. (eds) Advances in Information Security and Its Application: Third International Conference, ISA 2009, Seoul, Korea, June 25-27, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 29–36

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lifetime Data Analysis.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Why Baby Planets Didn’t Just Fall into their Stars. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) FTS2001: Improving the Revenue Estimation Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ravilla S (2013) Correlation between diabetes and periodontitis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S (2016) The City of Lights, When It Was First Lighted. New York Times CT8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ke 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Bergman and Siegal 2003; Ke 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bergman and Siegal 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Cowley et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLifetime Data Analysis
AbbreviationLifetime Data Anal.
ISSN (print)1380-7870
ISSN (online)1572-9249
ScopeApplied Mathematics
General Medicine

Other styles