How to format your references using the Lifetime Data Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lifetime Data Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berkley S (2015) Share the risks of Ebola vaccine development. Nature 519:263
A journal article with 2 authors
van Loosdrecht MCM, Brdjanovic D (2014) Water treatment. Anticipating the next century of wastewater treatment. Science 344:1452–1453
A journal article with 3 authors
Mutanen M, Kaila L, Tabell J (2013) Wide-ranging barcoding aids discovery of one-third increase of species richness in presumably well-investigated moths. Sci Rep 3:2901
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Berthe M, Stiufiuc R, Grandidier B, et al (2008) Probing the carrier capture rate of a single quantum level. Science 319:436–438

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2015) Guidelines for Defining Process Safety Competency Requirements. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gathegi JN, Tonta Y, Kurbanoğlu S, et al (eds) (2014) Challenges of Information Management Beyond the Cloud: 4th International Symposium on Information Management in a Changing World, IMCW 2013, Limerick, Ireland, September 4-6, 2013. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Duggan J (2007) Using System Dynamics and Multiple Objective Optimization to Support Policy Analysis for Complex Systems. In: Qudrat-Ullah H, Spector JM, Davidsen PI (eds) Complex Decision Making: Theory and Practice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 59–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lifetime Data Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) One drug to rule them all: New medication could treat wide range of diseases. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) National Science Foundation: Steps Taken to Improve Contracting Practices, but Opportunities Exist to Do More. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spencer KH (2008) Exploring the impact of problem -focused case writing pedagogy on novice teachers’ beliefs and practices concerning effective instructional intervention for young children and families. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB (2017) Tax Cuts Are Easy, but a Tax Overhaul? Three Proposals to Make the Math Work. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berkley 2015).
This sentence cites two references (van Loosdrecht and Brdjanovic 2014; Berkley 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Loosdrecht and Brdjanovic 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Berthe et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLifetime Data Analysis
AbbreviationLifetime Data Anal.
ISSN (print)1380-7870
ISSN (online)1572-9249
ScopeApplied Mathematics
General Medicine

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