How to format your references using the Research in Number Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Number Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eberl, G.: Immunology: A is for immunity. Nature. 508, 47–48 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Collinge, J., Clarke, A.R.: A general model of prion strains and their pathogenicity. Science. 318, 930–936 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalka, M.B., Smith, A.R., Kalko, E.K.V.: Bats limit arthropods and herbivory in a tropical forest. Science. 320, 71 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gehrels, N., Macomb, D.J., Bertsch, D.L., Thompson, D.J., Hartman, R.C.: Discovery of a new population of high-energy gamma-ray sources in the Milky Way. Nature. 404, 363–365 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wittcoff, H.A., Reuben, B.G., Plotkin, J.S.: Industrial Organic Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Hoe, L.V.: MR Cholangiopancreatography: Atlas with Cross-Sectional Imaging Correlation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Wester, R.: Energy Transport and Heat Conduction. In: Poprawe, R. (ed.) Tailored Light 2: Laser Application Technology. pp. 43–62. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Number Theory.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Stephen Hawking Says We Should Be “Wary” About Contacting Aliens,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Serious Shortcomings in FAA’s Training Program Must Be Remedied. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Enriquez, M.: Music therapy to hospice patients of Visiting Nurse Association of Inland Counties: A grant proposal, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr., Alani, H.: Man Who Pushed Passenger Who Died on Subway Tracks Is Acquitted, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Number Theory
AbbreviationRes. Number Theory
ISSN (online)2363-9555

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