How to format your references using the Physics-Uspekhi citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics-Uspekhi. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fratzl P 2012 Materials science. A composite matter of alignment Science 335 177–8
A journal article with 2 authors
de Vernal A and Hillaire-Marcel C 2008 Natural variability of Greenland climate, vegetation, and ice volume during the past million years Science 320 1622–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Wen J, Zhou S and Chen J 2014 Colorimetric detection of Shewanella oneidensis based on immunomagnetic capture and bacterial intrinsic peroxidase activity Sci. Rep. 4 5191
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Wakim L M, Waithman J, van Rooijen N, Heath W R and Carbone F R 2008 Dendritic cell-induced memory T cell activation in nonlymphoid tissues Science 319 198–202

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh A K M E, Arashi M and Tabatabaey S M M 2014 Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Tanaka K, Berto F, Mares E and Paoli F 2013 Paraconsistency: Logic and Applications vol 26 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Aberman N-L and Cohen M J 2012 Nutrition and Bioenergy The Impact of Climate Change and Bioenergy on Nutrition ed B Thompson and M J Cohen (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 61–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics-Uspekhi.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Spitzer Space Telescope Spots Huge Asteroid Collision IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1983 Procedures for Making Grant Awards Under Three Department of Education Discretionary Grant Programs (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manzano D 2010 The benefits of fall intervention programs for older adults: A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L 2007 14,000 Sq. Ft., Shady Past, All for Just $8.3 Million New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics-Uspekhi
ISSN (print)1063-7869
ISSN (online)1468-4780
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

Other styles