How to format your references using the Physics-Uspekhi citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics-Uspekhi. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeilinger A 2000 The quantum centennial Nature 408 639–41
A journal article with 2 authors
Solozhenko V L and Kurakevych O O 2013 Equilibrium p-T phase diagram of boron: experimental study and thermodynamic analysis Sci. Rep. 3 2351
A journal article with 3 authors
Rood R T, Bania T M and Balser D S 2002 Cosmology. The saga of 3He Science 295 804–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Mandal S, El-Amin A, Alexander K, Rajendran B and Jha R 2014 Novel synaptic memory device for neuromorphic computing Sci. Rep. 4 5333

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garrison D R and Vaughan N D 2007 Blended Learning in Higher Education (San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass)
An edited book
Gavrilovska L, Krco S, Milutinovic V, Stojmenovic I and Trobec R 2011 Application and Multidisciplinary Aspects of Wireless Sensor Networks: Concepts, Integration, and Case Studies (London: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Borghese F, Denti P and Saija R 2007 Multipole Expansions and Transition Matrix Scattering from Model Nonspherical Particles: Theory and Applications to Environmental Physics Physics of Earth and Space Environments ed P Denti and R Saija (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 73–108

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics-Uspekhi.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Who Was The Taung Child? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1989 School Lunch Program: Buy American Procedures at Commodity Schools (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perilla J Y 2015 Support group for neonatal intensive care families: A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh M W and Cooper M 2011 Faltering City Testing Its Vow To Pensioners New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics-Uspekhi
ISSN (print)1063-7869
ISSN (online)1468-4780
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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