How to format your references using the Critical Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, Virginia. 2010. “The Outlook for a Cure.” Nature 466 (7304): S11-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoefel, Fernanda, and Steve Elgar. 2003. “Wave-Induced Sediment Transport and Sandbar Migration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5614): 1885–1887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gormley, William T., Jr, Deborah Phillips, and Ted Gayer. 2008. “The Early Years. Preschool Programs Can Boost School Readiness.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5884): 1723–1724.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xu, Jiandong, Qiuming Gao, Yunlu Zhang, Yanli Tan, Weiqian Tian, Lihua Zhu, and Lei Jiang. 2014. “Preparing Two-Dimensional Microporous Carbon from Pistachio Nutshell with High Areal Capacitance as Supercapacitor Materials.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Curioso, Andrew, Ronald Bradford, and Patrick Galbraith. 2010. Expert PHP and MySQL®. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Xiong, Hui, and W. B. Lee, eds. 2011. Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management: 5th International Conference, KSEM 2011, Irvine, CA, USA, December 12-14, 2011. Proceedings. Vol. 7091. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Klingbeil, Harald, Ulrich Laier, and Dieter Lens. 2015. “Advanced Topics.” In Theoretical Foundations of Synchrotron and Storage Ring RF Systems, edited by Ulrich Laier and Dieter Lens, 225–297. Particle Acceleration and Detection. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Public Health.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Scientists Have Sequenced The Genome Of Iron-Breathing Microbes.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Survey of the Activities of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service. 091303. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai, Jieru. 2012. “Development and Validation of the Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese College Students in the United States (ASSCS).” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, John. 2016. “As Artificial Intelligence Evolves, So Does Its Criminal Potential.” New York Times, October 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hughes 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hughes 2010; Hoefel and Elgar 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoefel and Elgar 2003)
  • Three authors: (Gormley, Phillips, and Gayer 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Public Health
AbbreviationCrit. Public Health
ISSN (print)0958-1596
ISSN (online)1469-3682
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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