How to format your references using the HAND citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HAND. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Trewavas A. Urban myths of organic farming. Nature. 2001 Mar 22;410(6827):409–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Klankermayer J, Leitner W. CHEMISTRY. Love at second sight for CO₂ and H₂ in organic synthesis. Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):629–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Basu P, Qiu J, Powell K. Making a difference. Nature. 2008 Oct 16;455(7215):1002–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Naqvi NH, Rudrauf D, Damasio H, Bechara A. Damage to the insula disrupts addiction to cigarette smoking. Science. 2007 Jan 26;315(5811):531–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Mysak J. Encyclopedia of Municipal Bonds. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Chan KW, Raney RB, editors. Pediatric Oncology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zehnalová Š, Horák Z, Kudelka M. Image Search: A Story of One User Interface. In: Kudělka M, Pokorný J, Snášel V, Abraham A, editors. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction (IHCI 2011), Prague, Czech Republic, August, 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 39–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HAND.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. World’s First Robot-Run Hotel Due To Open In Japan This July [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/worlds-first-robot-run-hotel-due-open-japan-july/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Improved Tax Information Could Help Pay for College. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jul. Report No.: GAO-12-863T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Salonga-Moreno DR. Pressure ulcer prevention and management curriculum for home health agencies [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Neuman W. President of Colombia Halts Peace Talks With Rebels After General Is Seized. New York Times. 2014 Nov 18;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleHAND
AbbreviationHand (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)1558-9447
ISSN (online)1558-9455
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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