How to format your references using the HAND citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HAND. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
El-Awady N. Science journalism: The Arab boom. Nature. 2009 Jun 25;459(7250):1057.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prins G, Rayner S. Time to ditch Kyoto. Nature. 2007 Oct 25;449(7165):973–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schreiber RD, Old LJ, Smyth MJ. Cancer immunoediting: integrating immunity’s roles in cancer suppression and promotion. Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1565–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nash MS, Young KW, Challiss RA, Nahorski SR. Intracellular signalling. Receptor-specific messenger oscillations. Nature. 2001 Sep 27;413(6854):381–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramirez J. Accounting for Derivatives. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2007.
An edited book
Nishida T. Chimpanzee Behavior in the Wild: An Audio-Visual Encyclopedia. Zamma K, Matsusaka T, Inaba A, McGrew WC, editors. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Ducros A. About Hrushovski and Loeser’s Work on the Homotopy Type of Berkovich Spaces. In: Baker M, Payne S, editors. Nonarchimedean and Tropical Geometry. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 99–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HAND.

Blog post
Evans K. Global Warming Is Turning Cities Into Costly “Urban Heat Islands” [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army Networks: Select Programs Are Utilizing Competition to Varying Degrees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 May. Report No.: GAO-14-460.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cho Y. Chinese restaurant business and Taiwanese pentecostalism in Southern California [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. A Sour Surprise for Public Pensions. New York Times. 2016 Sep 17;BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleHAND
AbbreviationHand (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)1558-9447
ISSN (online)1558-9455
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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