How to format your references using the HAND citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HAND. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Gibbs RA. Genome-sequencing anniversary. Bringing genomics and genetics back together. Science. 2011 Feb 4;331(6017):548.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Miller GT, Pitnick S. Sperm-female coevolution in Drosophila. Science. 2002 Nov 8;298(5596):1230–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Araki H, Cooper B, Blouin MS. Genetic effects of captive breeding cause a rapid, cumulative fitness decline in the wild. Science. 2007 Oct 5;318(5847):100–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Blewitt G, Lavallée D, Clarke P, Nurutdinov K. A new global mode of Earth deformation: seasonal cycle detected. Science. 2001 Dec 14;294(5550):2342–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Abdul-Rahman Y. The Art of RF (Riba-Free) Islamic Banking and Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Bignami GF. A Scenario for Interstellar Exploration and Its Financing. Sommariva A, editor. Milano: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Sato C. Influences of Water on the Adhesive Properties. In: Silva LFM da, Sato C, editors. Design of Adhesive Joints Under Humid Conditions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 77–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HAND.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K. Flakka Is A Dangerous Drug, But It Doesn’t Turn You Into A Zombie [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/flakka-is-a-dangerous-drug-but-it-doesnt-turn-you-into-a-zombie/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1995-97. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Mar. Report No.: IAP-95-7.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Slade SW. The complexity of leading in the 21st century: A case study of a successful charter school in an urban school district [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Qiu L. False Claims and Flawed Reports. New York Times. 2017 Jul 3;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleHAND
AbbreviationHand (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)1558-9447
ISSN (online)1558-9455
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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