How to format your references using the Research in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lenski, R. E. (2000). No mercy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5493), 936a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klitzman, R., & Appelbaum, P. S. (2012). Research ethics. To protect human subjects, review what was done, not proposed. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6076), 1576–1577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, D.-A., Kanai, R., & Shimojo, S. (2004). Vision: steady-state misbinding of colour and motion. Nature, 429(6989), 262.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Floyd, J. S., Mutter, J. C., Goodliffe, A. M., & Taylor, B. (2001). Evidence for fault weakness and fluid flow within an active low-angle normal fault. Nature, 411(6839), 779–783.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Price, J. (2010). The Conscious Investor. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hatamura, Y. (Ed.). (2006). Decision-Making in Engineering Design: Theory and Practice. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barakat, R. R. (2010). Criteria for Using Intraperitoneal (IP) Chemotherapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer. In D. S. Alberts, M. C. Clouser, & L. M. Hess (Eds.), Intraperitoneal Therapy for Ovarian Cancer (pp. 51–58). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Higher Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, August 1). Study Confirms That Comets Are Remnants Of The Early Solar System. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Telecommunications: The Changing Status of Competition to Cable Television (No. RCED-99-158). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ferris, R. J. (2014). Numerical investigations of flow past a partially rotating stepped cylinder (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Etheredge, P. by G. (2016, October 7). Nighttime Windows. New York Times, p. RE12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lenski 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Klitzman and Appelbaum 2012; Lenski 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klitzman and Appelbaum 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Floyd et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Higher Education
AbbreviationRes. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0361-0365
ISSN (online)1573-188X

Other styles