How to format your references using the Research in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. (2000). NASA review leaves projects on launch pad. National Aeronautics & Space Administration. Nature, 403(6770), 583.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kofman, A. G., & Kurizki, G. (2000). Acceleration of quantum decay processes by frequent observations. Nature, 405(6786), 546–550.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rodell, M., Velicogna, I., & Famiglietti, J. S. (2009). Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India. Nature, 460(7258), 999–1002.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Saal, A. E., Hauri, E. H., Langmuir, C. H., & Perfit, M. R. (2002). Vapour undersaturation in primitive mid-ocean-ridge basalt and the volatile content of Earth’s upper mantle. Nature, 419(6906), 451–455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davis, M., McKimm, J., & Forrest, K. (2013). How to Assess Doctors and Health Professionals. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Moriai, S. (Ed.). (2014). Fast Software Encryption: 20th International Workshop, FSE 2013, Singapore, March 11-13, 2013. Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 8424). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gonzalvo, X., Iriondo, I., Socoró, J. C., Alías, F., & Monzo, C. (2007). Mixing HMM-Based Spanish Speech Synthesis with a CBR for Prosody Estimation. In M. Chetouani, A. Hussain, B. Gas, M. Milgram, & J.-L. Zarader (Eds.), Advances in Nonlinear Speech Processing: International Conference on Non-Linear Speech Processing, NOLISP 2007 Paris, France, May 22-25, 2007 Revised Selected Papers (pp. 78–85). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Higher Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, January 20). New Prostate Test Twice As Likely To Identify Cancer As Traditional Technique. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Aircraft Modifications: Overestimates of Costs Generate Excess Funds (No. NSIAD-87-199BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tseng, Y. H.-H. (2008). Motivation of participation in inservice training based on problem solving: A modified Delphi study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017, October 11). An Unconventional Witness. New York Times, p. A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kofman and Kurizki 2000; Reichhardt 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kofman and Kurizki 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Saal et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Higher Education
AbbreviationRes. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0361-0365
ISSN (online)1573-188X

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