How to format your references using the Research in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2007). Postdoc redefined. Nature, 446(7139), 1114.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilhite, A. W., & Fong, E. A. (2012). Scientific publications. Coercive citation in academic publishing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6068), 542–543.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, M. A., Brandt, J., & Shadmehr, R. (2000). Motor disorder in Huntington’s disease begins as a dysfunction in error feedback control. Nature, 403(6769), 544–549.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, J., Zeng, Z., Lin, H.-Q., & Li, Y.-L. (2014). Pressure-induced planar N6 rings in potassium azide. Scientific reports, 4, 4358.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (1999). Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Levin, M. F. (Ed.). (2014). Progress in Motor Control: Skill Learning, Performance, Health, and Injury (Vol. 826). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hillhouse, J., & Turrisi, R. (2012). Motivations for Indoor Tanning: Theoretical Models. In C. J. Heckman & S. L. Manne (Eds.), Shedding Light on Indoor Tanning (pp. 69–86). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 6). Why Medical Journals Must Make Researchers Share Data From Clinical Trials. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Customs Service Modernization: Third Expenditure Plan Meets Legislative Conditions, but Cost Estimating Improvements Needed (No. GAO-02-908). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vento, K. A. (2017). The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Subjective Well-Being of Collegiate Athletes (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2016, August 29). Feeding Nostalgia With a Remix. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baker 2007; Wilhite and Fong 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilhite and Fong 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Higher Education
AbbreviationRes. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0361-0365
ISSN (online)1573-188X

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