How to format your references using the Research in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dennis, C. (2003). Bushfires annihilate Australian observatory. Nature, 421(6921), 302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Surani, A., & Smith, J. (2007). Obituary: Anne McLaren (1927-2007). Nature, 448(7155), 764–765.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sambarey, A., Prashanthi, K., & Chandra, N. (2013). Mining large-scale response networks reveals “topmost activities” in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Scientific reports, 3, 2302.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Heinisch, G., Rosenfeld, H., Knapp, J. M., Gordin, H., & Lutcavage, M. E. (2014). Sexual maturity in western Atlantic bluefin tuna. Scientific reports, 4, 7205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochstadt, H. (1988). Integral Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dimov, I., Fidanova, S., & Lirkov, I. (Eds.). (2015). Numerical Methods and Applications: 8th International Conference, NMA 2014, Borovets, Bulgaria, August 20-24, 2014, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 8962). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsutsumi, A., & Shimazu, A. (2016). Guidelines for Primary Prevention for Mental Health at Work. In A. Shimazu, R. Bin Nordin, M. Dollard, & J. Oakman (Eds.), Psychosocial Factors at Work in the Asia Pacific: From Theory to Practice (pp. 61–75). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Higher Education.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, June 7). 2016 Had The Biggest Rise In US Drug Overdose Deaths Ever. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Federal Student Loans: Flexible Agreements with Guaranty Agencies Warrant Careful Evaluation (No. GAO-02-254). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada, M. I. (2012). A community risk assessment of the 90806 zip code (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1994, January 30). The Hatman Closeth. New York Times, p. 1310.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dennis 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dennis 2003; Surani and Smith 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Surani and Smith 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Heinisch et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Higher Education
AbbreviationRes. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0361-0365
ISSN (online)1573-188X

Other styles