How to format your references using the Research in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruiz, J. (2001). The stability against freezing of an internal liquid-water ocean in Callisto. Nature, 412(6845), 409–411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dulcis, D., & Spitzer, N. C. (2008). Illumination controls differentiation of dopamine neurons regulating behaviour. Nature, 456(7219), 195–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hodge, A., Campbell, C. D., & Fitter, A. H. (2001). An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus accelerates decomposition and acquires nitrogen directly from organic material. Nature, 413(6853), 297–299.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dhillon, M. S., Cockcroft, C. J., Munsey, T., Smith, K. J., Powell, A. J., Carter, P., et al. (2014). A functional Kv1.2-hERG chimaeric channel expressed in Pichia pastoris. Scientific reports, 4, 4201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ketring, K. L., & Glaze, M. B. (2012). Atlas of Feline Ophthalmology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Krowne, C. M., & Zhang, Y. (Eds.). (2007). Physics of Negative Refraction and Negative Index Materials: Optical and Electronic Aspects and Diversified Approaches (Vol. 98). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hagemann, T. M., & Lewis, T. V. (2010). Iron as a Drug and Drug–Drug Interactions. In S. Yehuda & D. I. Mostofsky (Eds.), Iron Deficiency and Overload: From Basic Biology to Clinical Medicine (pp. 77–91). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 23). Teenage Girl Had To Stay Awake For Four Days After Parasite Started Eating Her Eyeball. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Administration of the Emergency School Aid Act by OE (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schluter, K. T. (2013). Hearing words without structure: Subliminal speech priming and the organization of the Moroccan Arabic lexicon (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003, February 16). Bronze Star: Gregg LeFevre Is the City’s Busiest Public Sculptor. New York Times, p. 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruiz 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Dulcis and Spitzer 2008; Ruiz 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dulcis and Spitzer 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Dhillon et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Higher Education
AbbreviationRes. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0361-0365
ISSN (online)1573-188X

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