How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Running SW. Climate change. Ecosystem disturbance, carbon, and climate. Science. 2008;321(5889):652-653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappaport SM, Smith MT. Epidemiology. Environment and disease risks. Science. 2010;330(6003):460-461.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma J, Angelucci A, Sur M. Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature. 2000;404(6780):841-847.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vilkov O, Fedorov A, Usachov D, et al. Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2168.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaughan D, Robinson N, Lucas N, Arulkumaran S. Handbook of Obstetric High Dependency Care. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Sarti A, Lorini FL, eds. Echocardiography for Intensivists. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Baffo I, Confessore G, Liotta G, Stecca G. A Cooperative Model to Improve Hospital Equipments and Drugs Management. In: Camarinha-Matos LM, Paraskakis I, Afsarmanesh H, eds. Leveraging Knowledge for Innovation in Collaborative Networks: 10th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2009, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 7-9, 2009. Proceedings. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer; 2009:43-50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Rheumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. How The Largest Association Of Psychologists In The US Colluded In Torture. IFLScience. Published July 16, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Limited Progress in Development of Business Enterprise Architecture and Oversight of Information Technology Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nixon HA. Defining Principals: The Seen and the Unseen. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards Five and Six. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Witz B. All Kidding Aside, Alderson and Mets Sign Tebow to Minor League Deal. New York Times. September 9, 2016:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Rheumatology
ISSN (print)0973-3698

Other styles