How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morgan JA. Ecology. Looking beneath the surface. Science. 2002;298(5600):1903-1904.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bollyky TJ, Bollyky PL. Science and government. Obama and the promotion of international science. Science. 2012;338(6107):610-612.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhuang J, Yu GR, Nakayama K. A series RCL circuit theory for analyzing non-steady-state water uptake of maize plants. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6720.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Perdomo D, Baron B, Rojo-Domínguez A, Raynal B, England P, Guillén N. The α-helical regions of KERP1 are important in Entamoeba histolytica adherence to human cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1171.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wei J. Great Inventions That Changed the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Bakker C, Montessori NM, eds. Complexity in Education: From Horror to Passion. SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Inselberg A, Lai PL. Visualization and Data Mining for High Dimensional Data. In: Braslavski P, Karpov N, Worring M, Volkovich Y, Ignatov DI, eds. Information Retrieval: 8th Russian Summer School, RuSSIR 2014, Nizhniy, Novgorod, Russia, August 18-22, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing; 2015:142-184.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Rheumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Filmmaker Gets Up Close And Personal With Massive Hammerhead Sharks. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Special Education: State and Local-Imposed Requirements Complicate Federal Efforts to Reduce Administrative Burden. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rey D. Chaos, Observability and Symplectic Structure in Optimal Estimation. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Hurdle J. Harrisburg Sees Path to Restructuring Debts Without Bankruptcy Filing. New York Times. July 25, 2013:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Rheumatology
ISSN (print)0973-3698

Other styles