How to format your references using the Research in Gerontological Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Gerontological Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton R. International science council names first female president. Nature. 2000;403(6770):582.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ammerman AJ, McClennen CE. URBAN ECOLOGY: Saving Venice. Science. 2000;289(5483):1301-1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duarte CM, Marbá N, Holmer M. Ecology. Rapid domestication of marine species. Science. 2007;316(5823):382-383.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xie ZQ, Bai J, Zhou YS, et al. Control of crystallographic orientation in diamond synthesis through laser resonant vibrational excitation of precursor molecules. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4581.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvia T, Anzur T. Power Performance. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Sahai A. Web Services in the Enterprise: Concepts, Standards, Solutions, and Management. (Graupner S, ed.). Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Etienne J-F, Fechter S, Juppeaux E. Using Simulink Design Verifier for Proving Behavioral Properties on a Complex Safety Critical System in the Ground Transportation Domain. In: Aiguier M, Bretaudeau F, Krob D, eds. Complex Systems Design & Management: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Complex System Design & Management CSDM 2010. Springer; 2010:61-72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Gerontological Nursing.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. This Guy Hired A Helicopter To Snap The First Image Of A Secret New SpaceX Machine. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Direct Student Loan Program: Management Actions Could Enhance Customer Service. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bracht KD. Causes of nonattendance and its effect on student achievement at the high school level. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. DeGrom Bounces Back in Style, but Cespedes Exits With Soreness. New York Times. June 13, 2017:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Gerontological Nursing
AbbreviationRes. Gerontol. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1940-4921
ISSN (online)1938-2464
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health Policy

Other styles