How to format your references using the Research in Gerontological Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Gerontological Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Halpern JP. Astronomy. Gamma-ray pulsars old and new. Science. 2009;325(5942):821-822.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reisz RR, Smith MM. Developmental biology. Lungfish dental pattern conserved for 360 Myr. Nature. 2001;411(6837):548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor MW, Thacker RW, Hentschel U. Genetics. Evolutionary insights from sponges. Science. 2007;316(5833):1854-1855.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Malajovich I, Berry JJ, Samarth N, Awschalom DD. Persistent sourcing of coherent spins for multifunctional semiconductor spintronics. Nature. 2001;411(6839):770-772.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gadd K. TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Li S-T, Zhong J, Sekula RF Jr, eds. Microvascular Decompression Surgery. Springer Netherlands; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Rossi D, Testa C, Valenti S. Yes, We LEDBAT: Playing with the New BitTorrent Congestion Control Algorithm. In: Krishnamurthy A, Plattner B, eds. Passive and Active Measurement: 11th International Conference, PAM 2010, Zurich, Switzerland, April 7-9, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2010:31-40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Gerontological Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew E. Life Could Be Possible On Sideways Exoplanet If It Has Oceans. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA-Ames Research Center Should Not Have Awarded Computational Services Contract to SBA and Technology Development of California. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verdi KC. What Does It Mean to Be a Service-Learning Teacher? - An Autoethnography. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Kendrick Lamar At No. 1 for 2nd Week. New York Times. May 1, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Gerontological Nursing
AbbreviationRes. Gerontol. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1940-4921
ISSN (online)1938-2464
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health Policy

Other styles