How to format your references using the Journal of Gerontological Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gerontological Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Degen M. Europe draws up plans for funding agency. Nature. 2003;421(6926):881.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldblatt C, Zahnle KJ. Faint young Sun paradox remains. Nature. 2011;474(7349):E3-4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo M, Fee MS, Katz LC. Encoding pheromonal signals in the accessory olfactory bulb of behaving mice. Science. 2003;299(5610):1196-1201.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Eichmann U, Nubbemeyer T, Rottke H, Sandner W. Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields. Nature. 2009;461(7268):1261-1264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Magnasco V. Models for Bonding in Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Vieira M, Ho P, eds. Experiments in Unit Operations and Processing of Foods. Vol 5. Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Ni W, Vu NS, Caplier A. An Online Three-Stage Method for Facial Point Localization. In: Real P, Diaz-Pernil D, Molina-Abril H, Berciano A, Kropatsch W, eds. Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns: 14th International Conference, CAIP 2011, Seville, Spain, August 29-31, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:57-64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gerontological Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Meditation Affects The Brain. IFLScience. Published May 16, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Farm Program Modernization: Farm Service Agency Needs to Demonstrate the Capacity to Manage IT Initiatives. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vallaster JR. Recognizing and Supporting the Forgotten Poverty Frontier: Exploring Suburban School Poverty in Elementary Schools. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. No Sawdust, But a Real Pit. New York Times. August 5, 2006:NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gerontological Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Gerontol. Nurs.
ISSN (print)0098-9134
ISSN (online)1938-243X

Other styles