How to format your references using the Journal of Gerontological Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gerontological Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Claussen M. Astronomy. Astronomical masers. Science. 2004;306(5694):235-236.
A journal article with 2 authors
De Angelis H, Skvarca P. Glacier surge after ice shelf collapse. Science. 2003;299(5612):1560-1562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moser DE, Flowers RM, Hart RJ. Birth of the Kaapvaal tectosphere 3.08 billion years ago. Science. 2001;291(5503):465-468.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pal A, Shirodkar SN, Gohil S, Ghosh S, Waghmare UV, Ayyub P. Multiferroic behavior in elemental selenium below 40 K: effect of electronic topology. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama M, Batatia H, Messai A. Transitions from Digital Communications to Quantum Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Durand-Lose J, Margenstern M, eds. Machines, Computations, and Universality: 5th International Conference, MCU 2007, Orléans, France, September 10-13, 2007. Proceedings. Vol 4664. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Foucaud F, Kovše M. On Graph Identification Problems and the Special Case of Identifying Vertices Using Paths. In: Arumugam S, Smyth WF, eds. Combinatorial Algorithms: 23rd International Workshop, IWOCA 2012, Tamil Nadu, India, July 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2012:32-45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gerontological Nursing.

Blog post
Carpineti A. “Boring” Star Cluster Found To Host Hundreds Of Black Holes. IFLScience. Published September 8, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Weather Satellites: Cost Growth and Development Delays Jeopardize U.S. Forecasting Ability. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norman CL. Perceptions of non-traditional programs within Missouri school districts. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Racer Adds a Challenge: Obesity. New York Times. November 21, 2012:B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gerontological Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Gerontol. Nurs.
ISSN (print)0098-9134
ISSN (online)1938-243X

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