How to format your references using the Journal of Gerontological Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gerontological Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman KS. Biotech boom. Nature. 2005;436(7050):480-483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gislason SR, Oelkers EH. Geochemistry. Carbon storage in basalt. Science. 2014;344(6182):373-374.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hirata A, Klein BJ, Murakami KS. The X-ray crystal structure of RNA polymerase from Archaea. Nature. 2008;451(7180):851-854.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Clutton-Brock TH, Russell AF, Sharpe LL, et al. Effects of helpers on juvenile development and survival in meerkats. Science. 2001;293(5539):2446-2449.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Petrucelli JR, Peters JR. Preventing Fraud and Mismanagement in Government. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Meleard S. Stochastic Models for Structured Populations: Scaling Limits and Long Time Behavior. Vol 1.4. 1st ed. 2015. (Bansaye V, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavanello L, Cesari S, Biasiutti C, Manfredi R, Mucelli RP. Fibroids. In: Manfredi R, Pozzi Mucelli R, eds. MRI of the Female and Male Pelvis. Springer International Publishing; 2015:97-127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gerontological Nursing.

Blog post
Andrews R. Scientists Turn Harmful Algal Blooms Into High-Capacity Battery Components. IFLScience. Published October 13, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Inadequate Planning and Design Led to Propulsion Module Project Failure. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison C. Who Am I? Identity Formation of Children in Foster Care: A Curriculum Development. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. New Yorkers in Moscow Follow Stanislavsky’s Path. New York Times. May 21, 2005:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gerontological Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Gerontol. Nurs.
ISSN (print)0098-9134
ISSN (online)1938-243X

Other styles