How to format your references using the BIOETHICS UPdate citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BIOETHICS UPdate. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. (2000). NASA review leaves projects on launch pad. National Aeronautics & Space Administration. Nature, 403(6770), 583.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ee, R., & Anderson, B. L. (2001). Motion direction, speed and orientation in binocular matching. Nature, 410(6829), 690–694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levey, D. J., Duncan, R. S., & Levins, C. F. (2004). Animal behaviour: use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls. Nature, 431(7004), 39.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schwoerer, H., Pfotenhauer, S., Jäckel, O., Amthor, K.-U., Liesfeld, B., Ziegler, W., Sauerbrey, R., Ledingham, K. W. D., & Esirkepov, T. (2006). Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets. Nature, 439(7075), 445–448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, D. R. J. M., & Al-Ani, D. M. Z. (2011). Temporomandibular Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ortmeier, F., & Daniel, P. (Eds.). (2012). Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7612). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuzmanić, I., & Vujović, I. (2015). Analyzing and Modeling Reliability and Availability of the Quality Control System. In I. Vujović (Ed.), Reliability and Availability of Quality Control Based on Wavelet Computer Vision (pp. 17–39). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BIOETHICS UPdate.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, September 12). Did This Chinese Billionaire Hide 6% Of The World’s Aluminum In Mexico To Cheat The Markets? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Analysis of Replacing Existing DOA Computer System (LCD-77-101). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stitt, C. R. (2008). Differences in theoretical constructs of processing health information in narrative entertainment television messages [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Healy, J., & Fandos, N. (2016, December 4). Protesters Gain Victory in Fight Over Oil Pipeline. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt, 2000; van Ee & Anderson, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Ee & Anderson, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Levey et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schwoerer et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBIOETHICS UPdate
ISSN (print)2395-938X

Other styles