How to format your references using the BIOETHICS UPdate citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BIOETHICS UPdate. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christeson, G. (2009). Journal club. A geophysicist ponders the mysteries of intraplate earthquakes. Nature, 459(7248), 755.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trumbore, S. E., & Czimczik, C. I. (2008). Geology. An uncertain future for soil carbon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5895), 1455–1456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mohn, F., Handler, D., & Brennecke, J. (2015). Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided slicing specifies transcripts for Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA biogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6236), 812–817.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chan, H. F., Zhang, Y., Ho, Y.-P., Chiu, Y.-L., Jung, Y., & Leong, K. W. (2013). Rapid formation of multicellular spheroids in double-emulsion droplets with controllable microenvironment. Scientific Reports, 3, 3462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackwood, N. (2014). Advanced Excel Reporting for Management Accountants. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jawahir, I. S., Sikdar, S. K., & Huang, Y. (Eds.). (2013). Treatise on Sustainability Science and Engineering. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Dinh, T.-C., & Sibony, N. (2010). Dynamics in Several Complex Variables: Endomorphisms of Projective Spaces and Polynomial-like Mappings. In E. Bedford, M. Brunella, T.-C. Dinh, D. Schleicher, N. Sibony, G. Gentili, J. Guenot, & G. Patrizio (Eds.), Holomorphic Dynamical Systems: Cetraro, Italy, July 7-12, 2008 (pp. 165–294). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BIOETHICS UPdate.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, January 24). Here’s What Life Will Be Like In 2022, According To IBM. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Computer-Based Patient Records: Short-Term Progress Made, but Much Work Remains to Achieve a Two-Way Data Exchange Between VA and DOD Health Systems (GAO-04-271T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blasdel, E. S. (2010). A phenomenological study of barriers for women in federal law enforcement [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eddy, M., & Kanter, J. (2016, October 31). Backlash Over Remarks by German E.U. Official. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Christeson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Christeson, 2009; Trumbore & Czimczik, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trumbore & Czimczik, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Mohn et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chan et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBIOETHICS UPdate
ISSN (print)2395-938X

Other styles