How to format your references using the BIOETHICS UPdate citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BIOETHICS UPdate. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Storz, J. F. (2010). Evolution. Genes for high altitudes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5987), 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bright, A. T., & Winzeler, E. A. (2013). Epidemiology: resistance mapping in malaria. Nature, 498(7455), 446–447.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cymes, G. D., Ni, Y., & Grosman, C. (2005). Probing ion-channel pores one proton at a time. Nature, 438(7070), 975–980.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, L., Zhou, H., Su, Y., Sun, Z., Zhang, H., Zhang, L., Zhang, Y., Ning, Y., Chen, Y.-G., & Meng, A. (2004). Zebrafish Dpr2 inhibits mesoderm induction by promoting degradation of nodal receptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5693), 114–117.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klepinger, L. L. (2006). Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Koubaa, A. (Ed.). (2016). Robot Operating System (ROS): The Complete Reference (Volume 1) (1st ed. 2016, Vol. 625). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kempke, S., Van Houdenhove, B., Claes, S., & Luyten, P. (2016). The Role of Perfectionism in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. In F. M. Sirois & D. S. Molnar (Eds.), Perfectionism, Health, and Well-Being (pp. 101–118). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BIOETHICS UPdate.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 3). Satellites Reveal Previously Unknown Seafloor Features. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Aviation Security: FAA Can Help Ensure That Airports’ Access Control Systems Are Cost-Effective (RCED-95-25). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clarke, P. N. (2008). Program evaluation: A study to evaluate the effectiveness of an alternative education program in a rural county of a mid-Atlantic U.S. state [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isaac, M. (2017, May 5). Uber’s Use of ‘Greyball’ Tool to Evade Authorities Spurs U.S. Inquiry. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Storz, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bright & Winzeler, 2013; Storz, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bright & Winzeler, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Cymes et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBIOETHICS UPdate
ISSN (print)2395-938X

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