How to format your references using the BIOETHICS UPdate citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BIOETHICS UPdate. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Amelino-Camelia, G. (2012). No theory is too special to question. Nature, 483(7388), 125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Irvine, R. F., & Denton, R. M. (2011). Cell biology. Pyro-technic control of metabolism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6057), 770–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plata, G., Henry, C. S., & Vitkup, D. (2015). Long-term phenotypic evolution of bacteria. Nature, 517(7534), 369–372.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sutton, M. A., Schmidt, E. F., Choi, K.-H., Schad, C. A., Whisler, K., Simmons, D., Karanian, D. A., Monteggia, L. M., Neve, R. L., & Self, D. W. (2003). Extinction-induced upregulation in AMPA receptors reduces cocaine-seeking behaviour. Nature, 421(6918), 70–75.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker, D. (2011). Global Real Estate Investment Trusts. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Vaduva, S. (2016). Moral Leadership in Business: Towards a Business Culture of Integrity (V. T. Alistar, A. R. Thomas, C. D. Lupiţu, & D. S. Neagoie, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tam, E., & Sweeney, T.-A. (2016). Learning with iPads in Early Childhood Education. In J. Orrell & D. D. Curtis (Eds.), Publishing Higher Degree Research: Making the Transition from Student to Researcher (pp. 43–52). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BIOETHICS UPdate.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 27). Watch The Antares Rocket Launch Tonight Live. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). [Comments on FAA Reimbursement of Employees’ Ferry Fares] (B-247849.3). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wood, R. D. (2010). Correlation of conductor leadership style, musician employment status, organizational participation to orchestra musician job satisfaction [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hirsch, G. A. (2013, October 29). Building Their Sport Stride By Stride. New York Times, B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Amelino-Camelia, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Amelino-Camelia, 2012; Irvine & Denton, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Irvine & Denton, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Plata et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sutton et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBIOETHICS UPdate
ISSN (print)2395-938X

Other styles