How to format your references using the BIOETHICS UPdate citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BIOETHICS UPdate. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamanouchi, K. (2002). The next frontier. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5560), 1659–1660.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kluwe, C., & Ellington, A. D. (2010). Evolution. RNA GPS. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6002), 330–331.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naeem, S., Hahn, D. R., & Schuurman, G. (2000). Producer-decomposer co-dependency influences biodiversity effects. Nature, 403(6771), 762–764.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tawk, M., Araya, C., Lyons, D. A., Reugels, A. M., Girdler, G. C., Bayley, P. R., … Clarke, J. D. W. (2007). A mirror-symmetric cell division that orchestrates neuroepithelial morphogenesis. Nature, 446(7137), 797–800.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens, H. (2012). Applied Building Physics. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Stock, J. A., Esposito, M. P., Lanteri, V. J., & Albala, D. M. (Eds.). (2008). Urologic Robotic Surgery. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Chik, D., Tripathi, G. N., & Wagatsuma, H. (2013). A Method to Deal with Prospective Risks at Home in Robotic Observations by Using a Brain-Inspired Model. In M. Lee, A. Hirose, Z.-G. Hou, & R. M. Kil (Eds.), Neural Information Processing: 20th International Conference, ICONIP 2013, Daegu, Korea, November 3-7, 2013. Proceedings, Part III (pp. 33–40). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BIOETHICS UPdate.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, May 1). First Rocky Material Found Coming From The Oort Cloud At The Edge Of The Solar System. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Civil Agencies Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments (No. AA-98-29(3)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeHart, W. P. (2008). The leader liminal sphere: A phenomenological inquiry (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, February 16). You’re Killing Me Susana. New York Times, p. C13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yamanouchi, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kluwe & Ellington, 2010; Yamanouchi, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kluwe & Ellington, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Naeem, Hahn, & Schuurman, 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tawk et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBIOETHICS UPdate
ISSN (print)2395-938X

Other styles