How to format your references using the Research in Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harley, C.D.G., 2011. Climate change, keystone predation, and biodiversity loss. Science 334, 1124–1127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Balasubramanian, M., Schwartz, E.L., 2002. The isomap algorithm and topological stability. Science 295, 7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ito, T., Woloszyn, M., Mazloff, M., 2010. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide transport in the Southern Ocean driven by Ekman flow. Nature 463, 80–83.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nagano, T., Mitchell, J.A., Sanz, L.A., Pauler, F.M., Ferguson-Smith, A.C., Feil, R., Fraser, P., 2008. The Air noncoding RNA epigenetically silences transcription by targeting G9a to chromatin. Science 322, 1717–1720.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, D., 2007. TKO Management! John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ohsawa, Y., 2012. Innovators’ Marketplace: Using Games to Activate and Train Innovators, Understanding Innovation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Z., Xue, Y., Zhu, X., Li, X., Yao, H., Miura, K., 2016. Combustion Behavior of Low-Rank Coal Upgraded by Degradative Solvent Extraction, in: Yue, G., Li, S. (Eds.), Clean Coal Technology and Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Coal Combustion. Springer, Singapore, pp. 31–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Scientists Develop “Smart” Insulin That Automatically Activates When Needed [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Sole-Source Contract Awards for Assembly of Radio Communication Systems, AN/GRC-142 (No. B-165004). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, E.C., 2012. Smart Packaging: A Novel Technique For Localized Drug Delivery For Ovarian Cancer (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. Supreme Court to Revisit Federal Sentencing Issues. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harley, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Balasubramanian and Schwartz, 2002; Harley, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Balasubramanian and Schwartz, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagano et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Economics
AbbreviationRes. Econ.
ISSN (print)1090-9443
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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