How to format your references using the Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schllwa, M. (2000). Centrioles go for a stroll. Nature, 405(6784), 292.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gault, F., & Huttner, S. (2008). A cat’s cradle for policy. Nature, 455(7212), 462–463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi, K., de Sousa Lopes, S. M. C., & Surani, M. A. (2007). Germ cell specification in mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5823), 394–396.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Blanford, S., Chan, B. H. K., Jenkins, N., Sim, D., Turner, R. J., Read, A. F., & Thomas, M. B. (2005). Fungal pathogen reduces potential for malaria transmission. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5728), 1638–1641.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gelbaum, B. R. (1995). Modern Real and Complex Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nührenbörger, M. (2016). Design Science and Its Importance in the German Mathematics Educational Discussion. (B. Rösken-Winter, C. I. Fung, R. Schwarzkopf, E. C. Wittmann, K. Akinwunmi, F. Lensing, & F. Schacht, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jin, C., Liu, J., & Guo, J. (2015). A Hybrid Model Based on Mutual Information and Support Vector Machine for Automatic Image Annotation. In R. Silhavy, R. Senkerik, Z. K. Oplatkova, Z. Prokopova, & P. Silhavy (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence Perspectives and Applications: Proceedings of the 4th Computer Science On-line Conference 2015 (CSOC2015), Vol 1: Artificial Intelligence Perspectives and Applications (pp. 29–38). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, May 22). Universe Reached Peak Heat 11 Billion Years Ago. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Contractors’ Independent Research and Development (No. 094624). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stachowiak, D. (2011). How executive coaches use the results of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to develop their coachees (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2017, May 15). Climate Scientists Unite With Lawyers to Counter Attacks on Their Efforts. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schllwa 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gault and Huttner 2008; Schllwa 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gault and Huttner 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Blanford et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
AbbreviationAppl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback
ISSN (print)1090-0586
ISSN (online)1573-3270
ScopeApplied Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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