How to format your references using the Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korner, C. (2003). Atmospheric science. Slow in, rapid out--carbon flux studies and Kyoto targets. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5623), 1242–1243.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hadders, M. A., & Lens, S. M. A. (2014). Cell biology. Mind the midzone. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6194), 265–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, W.-L., He, H.-W., & Yang, Z.-J. (2014). The angiotensinogen gene polymorphism is associated with heart failure among Asians. Scientific reports, 4, 4207.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jansen, R., Yu, H., Greenbaum, D., Kluger, Y., Krogan, N. J., Chung, S., et al. (2003). A Bayesian networks approach for predicting protein-protein interactions from genomic data. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5644), 449–453.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, B. K. (2015). Exercising Influence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lionetti, T. M., Snyder, E. P., & Christner, R. W. (Eds.). (2011). A Practical Guide to Building Professional Competencies in School Psychology. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Bandyopadhyay, A., Das, T., & Yeasmin, S. (2015). Synthetic (Inorganic) Nanoparticles Based Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy. In T. Das & S. Yeasmin (Eds.), Nanoparticles in Lung Cancer Therapy - Recent Trends (pp. 39–62). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, December 19). Dr Henry Heimlich, Inventor Of The Heimlich Maneuver, Dies At 96. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Review of Several Aspects of the Internal Revenue Service’s Proposed Computerized Tax Administration System (No. GGD-77-73). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coulibaly, I. (2017). Influence of Gender and Age on the Performance of a PBIS program: Quantitative Analysis of Secondary Data from a Midwestern Suburban Public Middle School (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James Barron With Eric Lipton G. S. Bourdain, Crow, K., & Fabricant, F. (2001, April 24). BOLDFACE NAMES. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Korner 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hadders and Lens 2014; Korner 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hadders and Lens 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Jansen et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
AbbreviationAppl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback
ISSN (print)1090-0586
ISSN (online)1573-3270
ScopeApplied Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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