How to format your references using the Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M. (2000). Women and ethnic minorities needed for US skills gap. Nature, 404(6780), 800.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blander, J. M., & Medzhitov, R. (2004). Regulation of phagosome maturation by signals from toll-like receptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5673), 1014–1018.
A journal article with 3 authors
Munoz, F., Couteron, P., & Hubbell, S. P. (2012). Comment on “Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6089), 1639; author reply 1639.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, S.-J., Naruse, M., Aono, M., Ohtsu, M., & Hara, M. (2013). Decision maker based on nanoscale photo-excitation transfer. Scientific reports, 3, 2370.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE technical manual. (1998). Dow’s Chemical Exposure Index Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Di Benedetto, M.-G., Cattoni, A. F., Fiorina, J., Bader, F., & De Nardis, L. (Eds.). (2015). Cognitive Radio and Networking for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks: Recent Advances and Visions for the Future. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rovira Más, F., Zhang, Q., & Hansen, A. C. (2011). Local Perception Systems. In Q. Zhang & A. C. Hansen (Eds.), Mechatronics and Intelligent Systems for Off-road Vehicles (pp. 75–110). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, June 27). Cockatoos Make Decisions On Tool Use Depending On What The Main Gain In The Future. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Computer Simulations, War Gaming, and Contract Studies (No. B-163074). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rajagopal, S. (2012). Assessing water management impacts of climate change for a semi-arid watershed in the southwestern US (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Thrush, G., Shear, M. D., & Sullivan, E. (2017, August 4). Former General Taking Control At White House. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Blander and Medzhitov 2004; Wadman 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blander and Medzhitov 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
AbbreviationAppl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback
ISSN (print)1090-0586
ISSN (online)1573-3270
ScopeApplied Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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