How to format your references using the Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parman, S. W. (2007). Helium isotopic evidence for episodic mantle melting and crustal growth. Nature, 446(7138), 900–903.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tibbetts, E. A., & Dale, J. (2004). A socially enforced signal of quality in a paper wasp. Nature, 432(7014), 218–222.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dharmawardhana, C. C., Misra, A., & Ching, W.-Y. (2014). Quantum mechanical metric for internal cohesion in cement crystals. Scientific reports, 4, 7332.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mecsas, J., Franklin, G., Kuziel, W. A., Brubaker, R. R., Falkow, S., & Mosier, D. E. (2004). Evolutionary genetics: CCR5 mutation and plague protection. Nature, 427(6975), 606.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vilensky, J. A., Robertson, W. M., & Suárez-Quian, C. A. (2015). The Clinical Anatomy of the Cranial Nerves. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pavón, J., Duque-Méndez, N. D., & Fuentes-Fernández, R. (Eds.). (2012). Advances in Artificial Intelligence – IBERAMIA 2012: 13th Ibero-American Conference on AI, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, November 13-16, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7637). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Moltchanov, D. (2008). On-Line Wireless Channel Modeling for Performance Control Purposes. In S. Balandin, D. Moltchanov, & Y. Koucheryavy (Eds.), Next Generation Teletraffic and Wired/Wireless Advanced Networking: 8th International Conference, NEW2AN and 1st Russian Conference on Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2008 St. Petersburg, Russia, September 3-5, 2008. Proceedings (pp. 49–60). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 10). Caffeine May Reduce Stress – But It Won’t Solve Your Problems. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-02-379R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chlarson-Varner, G. (2010). Falls among older adults 65 years and older (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2016, December 6). Beyoncé, With 9 Grammy Nods, Will Face Off Against Adele. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parman 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Parman 2007; Tibbetts and Dale 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tibbetts and Dale 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Mecsas et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
AbbreviationAppl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback
ISSN (print)1090-0586
ISSN (online)1573-3270
ScopeApplied Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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