How to format your references using the Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Betancourt, J. L. (2000). PALEOCLIMATE: The Amazon Reveals Its Secrets--Partly. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5500), 2274–2275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao, X., & Wang, K. (2014). Strength of stick-slip and creeping subduction megathrusts from heat flow observations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6200), 1038–1041.
A journal article with 3 authors
Myung, K., Chen, C., & Kolodner, R. D. (2001). Multiple pathways cooperate in the suppression of genome instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature, 411(6841), 1073–1076.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
de la Fuente-Fernández, R., Ruth, T. J., Sossi, V., Schulzer, M., Calne, D. B., & Stoessl, A. J. (2001). Expectation and dopamine release: mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson’s disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5532), 1164–1166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keedwell, E., & Narayanan, A. (2005). Intelligent Bioinformatics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Shayler, D. J. (2007). NASA’s Scientist-Astronauts. (C. Burgess, Ed.). New York, NY: Praxis.
A chapter in an edited book
Terwijn, S. A. (2010). Intuitionistic Logic and Computability Theory. In A. Dawar & R. de Queiroz (Eds.), Logic, Language, Information and Computation: 17th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2010, Brasilia, Brazil, July 6-9, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 55–57). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, February 24). Take A Trip With NASA’s Travel Posters For The New TRAPPIST-1 Exoplanets. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Small Business Administration: Planning for Loan Monitoring System Has Many Positive Features But Still Carries Implementation Challenges (No. T-AIMD-98-233). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pockross, A. F. (2010). Campbell, Turner and dog training in Adam Freeman Pockross’s “Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge” (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, May 27). It’s Good to Have Best Sellers. New York Times, p. E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Betancourt 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Betancourt 2000; Gao and Wang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gao and Wang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (de la Fuente-Fernández et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
AbbreviationAppl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback
ISSN (print)1090-0586
ISSN (online)1573-3270
ScopeApplied Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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