How to format your references using the Requirements Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Requirements Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferrari R (2011) Ocean science. A frontal challenge for climate models. Science 332:316–317
A journal article with 2 authors
Castaneda J, Matzuk MM (2015) DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY. Toward a rapid and reversible male pill. Science 350:385–386
A journal article with 3 authors
Gunn LJ, Allison A, Abbott D (2014) A directional wave measurement attack against the Kish key distribution system. Sci Rep 4:6461
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Svensen H, Planke S, Malthe-Sørenssen A, et al (2004) Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming. Nature 429:542–545

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Reedy MA (2011) Construction Management for Industrial Projects. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Huaman ES, Sriraman B (2015) Indigenous Innovation: Universalities and Peculiarities. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Scott JR, Effenberger AJ, Hatch JJ (2014) Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Composition on LIBS. In: Musazzi S, Perini U (eds) Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 91–116

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Requirements Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) New Method For Attaching Prostheses Improves Quality Of Life For Amputees. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Comments on Proposed F.P.M.R. Amendment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoscoe BT (2014) Assistive technology and the promotion of inclusion for special needs children in public schools: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2006) Suffolk and Nassau Fight Voting Machine Change. New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRequirements Engineering
ISSN (print)0947-3602
ISSN (online)1432-010X
ScopeInformation Systems

Other styles