How to format your references using the Requirements Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Requirements Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Madden JD (2006) Materials science. Artificial muscle begins to breathe. Science 311:1559–1560
A journal article with 2 authors
Soles CL, Ding Y (2008) Materials science. Nanoscale polymer processing. Science 322:689–690
A journal article with 3 authors
Hopkins AL, Witty MJ, Nwaka S (2007) Mission possible. Nature 449:166–169
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dezawa M, Ishikawa H, Itokazu Y, et al (2005) Bone marrow stromal cells generate muscle cells and repair muscle degeneration. Science 309:314–317

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cauvin C, Escobar F, Serradj A (2010) New Approaches in Thematic Cartography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Arvanitopoulos C, Botsiou KE (2010) The Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook 2010. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bonacchi S, Genovese D, Juris R, et al (2010) Energy Transfer in Silica Nanoparticles: An Essential Tool for the Amplification of the Fluorescence Signal. In: Geddes CD (ed) Reviews in Fluorescence 2008. Springer, New York, NY, pp 119–137

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Requirements Engineering.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Scientists Develop A New Method That Might Stop HIV From Replicating. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Army Training: Expenditures for Troop Schools Have Not Been Justified. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris DW (2012) An examination of the impact of computer-based animations and visualization sequence on student understanding of Hadley Cells in atmospheric circulation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2016) Books by Clare Beams, Hans Herbert Grimm, April Ayers Lawson and Kelly Luce. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRequirements Engineering
ISSN (print)0947-3602
ISSN (online)1432-010X
ScopeInformation Systems

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