How to format your references using the Forensic Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Theise ND (2005) Now you see it, now you don’t. Nature 435:1165
A journal article with 2 authors
Aratyn-Schaus Y, Gardel ML (2008) Biophysics. Clutch dynamics. Science 322:1646–1647
A journal article with 3 authors
Achlioptas D, Naor A, Peres Y (2005) Rigorous location of phase transitions in hard optimization problems. Nature 435:759–764
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Feng Y, Lin X, Yu Y, et al (2013) Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influences paddy methanogenic archaeal community. Sci Rep 3:3193

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (2014) Energy Materials 2014. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Trail IA, Fleming ANM (2015) Disorders of the Hand: Volume 3: Inflammation, Arthritis and Contractures. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Hosoya Y (2014) A Characterization of Quasi-concave Function in View of the Integrability Theory. In: Kusuoka S, Maruyama T (eds) Advances in Mathematical Economics Volume 18. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 135–140

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Fishy Robot Designed To Dunk Into Europa’s Oceans. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Selected FCC Regulatory Policies: Their Purpose and Consequences for Commercial Radio and TV. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skiold-Hanlin S (2015) Functional and Ecological Aspects of the Mucus Trails of the Freshwater Gastropod Elimia potosiensis. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J (2017) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Toxicology
AbbreviationForensic Toxicol.
ISSN (print)1860-8965
ISSN (online)1860-8973
ScopeBiochemistry, medical
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles