How to format your references using the Forensic Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lu K (2014) Nanomaterials. Making strong nanomaterials ductile with gradients. Science 345:1455–1456
A journal article with 2 authors
Tanaka M, Lisberger SG (2001) Regulation of the gain of visually guided smooth-pursuit eye movements by frontal cortex. Nature 409:191–194
A journal article with 3 authors
Karsai M, Perra N, Vespignani A (2014) Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties. Sci Rep 4:4001
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Du L, Lei DY, Yuan G, et al (2013) Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Sci Rep 3:3064

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kupka HJ (2010) Transitions in Molecular Systems. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Brogliato B (2007) Dissipative Systems Analysis and Control: Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Hidayat E, Medvedev A, Nordström K (2015) Identification of the Reichardt Elementary Motion Detector Model. In: Sun C, Bednarz T, Pham TD, et al (eds) Signal and Image Analysis for Biomedical and Life Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 83–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Tweaked Rats Can See Infrared Light. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) U.S. Merchant Marine Academy: Additional Actions Needed to Establish Effective Internal Control. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corona B (2012) Laws governing the treatment, involuntary detention and community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Future Is Now for Mets Prospect Rosario. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Toxicology
AbbreviationForensic Toxicol.
ISSN (print)1860-8965
ISSN (online)1860-8973
ScopeBiochemistry, medical
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles