How to format your references using the Recycling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Recycling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward-Thompson, D. Isolated Star Formation: From Cloud Formation to Core Collapse. Science 2002, 295, 76–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Piou, T.; Rovis, T. Rhodium-Catalysed Syn-Carboamination of Alkenes via a Transient Directing Group. Nature 2015, 527, 86–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rabitz, H.A.; Hsieh, M.M.; Rosenthal, C.M. Quantum Optimally Controlled Transition Landscapes. Science 2004, 303, 1998–2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mali, S.S.; Kim, H.; Shim, C.S.; Patil, P.S.; Kim, J.H.; Hong, C.K. Surfactant Free Most Probable TiO₂ Nanostructures via Hydrothermal and Its Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Properties. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Becker, K.; Rautenstrauch, K. Ingenieurholzbau Nach Eurocode 5: Konstruktion, Berechnung, Ausführung; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2012; ISBN 9783433602386.
An edited book
Adhikari, A. Developing Multi-Database Mining Applications; Ramachandrarao, P., Pedrycz, W., Eds.; Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing; Springer: London, 2010; ISBN 9781849960434.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Shaer, E.; Rahman, M.A. Intrusion Detection Systems for AMI. In Security and Resiliency Analytics for Smart Grids: Static and Dynamic Approaches; Rahman, M.A., Ed.; Advances in Information Security; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 105–134 ISBN 9783319328706.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Recycling.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Lift-Off For NASA Mission To Collect Grains From An Asteroid That May Be On Collision Course With Earth Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National Airspace System: Experts’ Views on Improving the U.S. Air Traffic Control Modernization Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford, J. What Is Old Is New Again: The Role of Discontinuity in Nostalgia-Related Consumption. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University: Boca Raton, FL, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. Investing in the Pain of Student Debt Is a Tough but Tempting Play. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRecycling
ISSN (online)2313-4321

Other styles