How to format your references using the Recycling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Recycling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hendrickson, W.A. Jerome Karle (1918-2013). Nature 2013, 499, 410.
A journal article with 2 authors
Little, D.P.; Jeanson, M.L. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3518.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brooks-Pollock, E.; Roberts, G.O.; Keeling, M.J. A Dynamic Model of Bovine Tuberculosis Spread and Control in Great Britain. Nature 2014, 511, 228–231.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liao, T.; Sun, Z.; Sun, C.; Dou, S.X.; Searles, D.J. Electronic Coupling and Catalytic Effect on H2 Evolution of MoS2/Graphene Nanocatalyst. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bucci, D. Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2017; ISBN 9781119405177.
An edited book
Filippi, S. The Design Guidelines Collaborative Framework: A Design for Multi-X Method for Product Development; Cristofolini, I., Ed.; Springer: London, 2010; ISBN 9781848827714.
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson, D.G. Pedicle-Lengthening Osteotomy for the Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. In Spinal Canal Stenosis; Manfrè, L., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 75–85 ISBN 9783319262680.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Recycling.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Lockheed Martin Claim They Will Have Nuclear Fusion Reactors That Fit On A Truck Within A Decade Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Internal Controls Over the Automatic Data Processing System Used by the Travelers Insurance Company in Making Medicare Payments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1969;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hughes, L.L. The Principalship: Preparation Programs and the Self-Efficacy of Principals. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Former Aide Cites Corruption. New York Times 2005, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRecycling
ISSN (online)2313-4321

Other styles