How to format your references using the Recycling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Recycling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Remer, L.A. Atmospheric Science. Just Add Aerosols. Science 2014, 344, 1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eaves, A.A.; Palmer, A.R. Reproduction: Widespread Cloning in Echinoderm Larvae. Nature 2003, 425, 146.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ni, J.; Yan, Q.; Yu, Y. How Much Metagenomic Sequencing Is Enough to Achieve a given Goal? Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1968.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Woo, S.H.; Choi, Y.Y.; Kim, D.J.; Bien, F.; Kim, J.J. Tissue-Informative Mechanism for Wearable Non-Invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6618.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgrossi, L.; Zhang, T. Vehicle Safety Communications; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118452189.
An edited book
Production Systems and Supply Chain Management in Emerging Countries: Best Practices: Selected Papers from the International Conference on Production Research (ICPR); Mejía, G., Velasco, N., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642260032.
A chapter in an edited book
Catalano, C.E.; Ivrissimtzis, I.; Nasri, A. Subdivision Surfaces and Applications. In Shape Analysis and Structuring; Floriani, L.D., Spagnuolo, M., Eds.; Mathematics and Visualization; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 115–143 ISBN 9783540332640.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Recycling.

Blog post
Andrew, E. First “Super Moon” Of The Year Will Be Visible July 12 Available online:“super-moon”-year-will-be-visible-july-12/ (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Airline Labor Relations: Information on Trends and Impact of Labor Actions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabellario, C.M. A Plan to Establish a Financial Counseling Center on the Campus of California State University, Long Beach. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Supreme Court to Decide Whether Rape of a Child Merits Death. New York Times 2008, A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRecycling
ISSN (online)2313-4321

Other styles