How to format your references using the Recycling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Recycling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. US court slashes damages in polymerase-beta theft case. Nature 2000, 407, 824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huybers, P.; Wunsch, C. Obliquity pacing of the late Pleistocene glacial terminations. Nature 2005, 434, 491–494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maduwage, K.; O’Leary, M.A.; Isbister, G.K. Diagnosis of snake envenomation using a simple phospholipase A2 assay. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4827.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dinnebier, R.E.; Gunnarsson, O.; Brumm, H.; Koch, E.; Stephens, P.W.; Huq, A.; Jansen, M. Structure of haloform intercalated C60 and its influence on superconductive properties. Science 2002, 296, 109–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Price, J. The Conscious Investor; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118267936.
An edited book
Politics and Emotions: The Obama Phenomenon; Engelken-Jorge, M., Güell, P.I., del Río, C.M., Eds.; VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften: Wiesbaden, 2011; ISBN 9783531181202.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmidhuber, J. 2006: Celebrating 75 Years of AI - History and Outlook: The Next 25 Years. In 50 Years of Artificial Intelligence: Essays Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence; Lungarella, M., Iida, F., Bongard, J., Pfeifer, R., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 29–41 ISBN 9783540772958.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Recycling.

Blog post
Fang, J. Monkeys Photographed Eating Bats For The First Time (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Unsupported Adjustments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Espinoza, M. A Latina’s educational attainment and her observations of foster youth’s educational struggles: A narrative. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. Lemon. New York Times 2017, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRecycling
ISSN (online)2313-4321

Other styles