How to format your references using the Recycling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Recycling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hermann, T. Non-Coding RNA: Antibiotic Tricks a Switch. Nature 2015, 526, 650–651.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jennings, M.D.; Pavitt, G.D. EIF5 Has GDI Activity Necessary for Translational Control by EIF2 Phosphorylation. Nature 2010, 465, 378–381.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pan, Z.W.; Dai, Z.R.; Wang, Z.L. Nanobelts of Semiconducting Oxides. Science 2001, 291, 1947–1949.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tian, Y.; Stroppa, A.; Chai, Y.; Yan, L.; Wang, S.; Barone, P.; Picozzi, S.; Sun, Y. Cross Coupling between Electric and Magnetic Orders in a Multiferroic Metal-Organic Framework. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6062.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lahdenmäki, T.; Leach, M. Relational Database Index Design and the Optimizers; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471721376.
An edited book
Advances in Conceptual Modeling: ER 2016 Workshops, AHA, MoBiD, MORE-BI, MReBA, QMMQ, SCME, and WM2SP, Gifu, Japan, November 14–17, 2016, Proceedings; Link, S., Trujillo, J.C., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 9975; ISBN 9783319477169.
A chapter in an edited book
Frederick, C.D. Chinampa Cultivation in the Basin of Mexico. In Seeking a Richer Harvest: The Archaeology of Subsistence Intensification, Innovation, and Change; Thurston, T.L., Fisher, C.T., Eds.; Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2007; pp. 107–124 ISBN 9780387327617.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Recycling.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Our Predictions Of Solar Storms Have Not Been Very Accurate Until Now – Here’s Why Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs More Guidance on Decisions to Store Satellites; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chima-Okereke, O. The Distinct VPS35 Mutant, Env1, Exhibits Unique Protein Mislocalization and Processing Phenotype. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rao, T. Comfort Food. New York Times 2017, BR13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRecycling
ISSN (online)2313-4321

Other styles