How to format your references using the Critical Studies in Media Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Studies in Media Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Election returns. Nature, 432(7015), 417.
A journal article with 2 authors
Macquaker, J. H. S., & Bohacs, K. M. (2007). Geology. On the accumulation of mud. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5857), 1734–1735.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jonsson, G. E., Miljkovic, V., & Dmitriev, A. (2014). Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management. Scientific Reports, 4, 5111.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Walker, M. L., Burgess, S. A., Sellers, J. R., Wang, F., Hammer, J. A., 3rd, Trinick, J., & Knight, P. J. (2000). Two-headed binding of a processive myosin to F-actin. Nature, 405(6788), 804–807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gwynne, P. (2017). World Religions in Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Stapleton, G., Howse, J., & Lee, J. (Eds.). (2008). Diagrammatic Representation and Inference: 5th International Conference, Diagrams 2008, Herrsching, Germany, September 19-21, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 5223). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hu, P., Ma, N., Liu, L.-Z., & Zhu, Y.-G. (2013). The Basic Theory and Constitutive Equation Constitutive Equation of High-Strength Steel High-strength steel for Hot Forming hot Forming. In N. Ma, L.-Z. Liu, & Y.-G. Zhu (Eds.), Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming: Analysis, Simulation and Engineering Applications (pp. 69–83). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Studies in Media Communication.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, October 28). Ongoing Algal Blooms Linked To The Largest Die-Off Of Great Whales Ever Recorded. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Justice Software Management (IMTEC-93-35R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Annan, F. (2012). Spatial pattern of yield distributions: implications for crop insurance [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2016, November 28). New Rules for a Tough TV Season. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Macquaker & Bohacs, 2007; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Macquaker & Bohacs, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Jonsson et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Walker et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Studies in Media Communication
AbbreviationCrit. Stud. Media Commun.
ISSN (print)1529-5036
ISSN (online)1479-5809

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