How to format your references using the Critical Studies in Media Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Studies in Media Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wykes, T. (2010). Cognitive remediation therapy needs funding. Nature, 468(7321), 165–166.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, I. W., & Wang, X. H. (2000). Sintering dense nanocrystalline ceramics without final-stage grain growth. Nature, 404(6774), 168–171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moore, J. D., Kirk, J. A., & Hunt, T. (2003). Unmasking the S-phase-promoting potential of cyclin B1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5621), 987–990.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kennett, D. J., Kennett, J. P., West, A., Mercer, C., Hee, S. S. Q., Bement, L., Bunch, T. E., Sellers, M., & Wolbach, W. S. (2009). Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5910), 94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gustafsson, F. (2001). Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Beer, M., Brom, C., Dignum, F., & Soo, V.-W. (Eds.). (2012). Agents for Educational Games and Simulations: International Workshop, AEGS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2, 2011. Revised Papers (Vol. 7471). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schoder, D., Fischbach, K., & Schmitt, C. (2005). 4. Application Areas. In R. Steinmetz & K. Wehrle (Eds.), Peer-to-Peer Systems and Applications (pp. 25–32). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Studies in Media Communication.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 9). Scientists Are On A Mission To Protect Curly Hair From Heat Damage. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Interstate Commerce Commission: Budget and Other Impacts of Eliminating or Transferring Functions (T-RCED-95-111). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duerr, P. S. (2015). Investigation of marine waterjet inlets during turning maneuvers [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2014, June 25). Germany Can Inflict Pain on the U.S., as It Has Before. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wykes, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Chen & Wang, 2000; Wykes, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen & Wang, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Moore et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kennett et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Studies in Media Communication
AbbreviationCrit. Stud. Media Commun.
ISSN (print)1529-5036
ISSN (online)1479-5809

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