How to format your references using the Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Halzen, F., 2007, Neutrino astrophysics experiments beneath the sea and ice: Science (New York, N.Y.), 315, 66–68.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fortágh, J., and C. Zimmermann, 2005, PHYSICS: Toward Atom Chips: Science (New York, N.Y.), 307, 860–861.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kormendy, J., R. Bender, and M. E. Cornell, 2011, Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges: Nature, 469, 374–376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nagahara, N., M. Nagano, T. Ito, K. Shimamura, T. Akimoto, and H. Suzuki, 2013, Antioxidant enzyme, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase-knockout mice exhibit increased anxiety-like behaviors: a model for human mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfiduria: Scientific Reports, 3, 1986.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen, K. L., and K. E. Zenobia, 2011, Civil Engineer’s Handbook of Professional Practice: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
2006, Nonunion of the Long Bones: Diagnosis and Treatment with Compression-Distraction Techniques (R. Mora, ed.,): Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hardt, N., and J. Kuttenberger, 2010, Mechanisms of Craniofacial Fractures, in N. Hardt and J. Kuttenberger, eds., Craniofacial Trauma: Diagnosis and Management, Springer, 55–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysics.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015, Poisonous Frogs Are More Susceptible To Extinction. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018 IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995, Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area: Active Assignments: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pugh, A. N., 2010, Adoption is an option: A personal narrative.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beachp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010, An Elvis Convention: The ‘Fat’ One Takes a Flop, But Lands On His Feet: New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Halzen, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Fortágh and Zimmermann, 2005; Halzen, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fortágh and Zimmermann, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagahara et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysics
ISSN (print)0016-8033
ISSN (online)1942-2156

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