How to format your references using the Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A., 2015, Animal behaviour: Come mate with me: Nature, 526, S8-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiessner, P., and N. Pupu, 2012, Toward peace: foreign arms and indigenous institutions in a Papua New Guinea society: Science (New York, N.Y.), 337, 1651–1654.
A journal article with 3 authors
Humayun, M., L. Qin, and M. D. Norman, 2004, Geochemical evidence for excess iron in the mantle beneath Hawaii: Science (New York, N.Y.), 306, 91–94.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, L., J. Hou, L. Ye, Y. Chen, J. Cui, W. Tian, C. Li, and L. Liu, 2014, MicroRNA-143 regulates adipogenesis by modulating the MAP2K5-ERK5 signaling: Scientific Reports, 4, 3819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmott, P., and D. Orrell, 2017, The Money Formula: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
2009, Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2008 (P. L’ Ecuyer and A. B. Owen, eds.,): Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
He, Y., and Y. Su, 2014, Silicon-Based Nanoagents for Cancer Therapy, in Y. Su, ed., Silicon Nano-biotechnology, , . SpringerBriefs in Molecular ScienceSpringer, 75–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, Artificial Kidneys Could Be In Patients By 2020. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018 IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993, B-2 Bomber: Comparison of Operational Capabilities and Support Costs for 15 Versus 20 Aircraft: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perilla, J. Y., 2015, Support group for neonatal intensive care families: A grant proposal.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beachp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G., 2015, From the Drawing Board to the Page: New York Times, C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Wiessner and Pupu, 2012; Maxmen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wiessner and Pupu, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysics
ISSN (print)0016-8033
ISSN (online)1942-2156

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