How to format your references using the Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carlson, R. W., 2002, Geology. Osmium remembers: Science (New York, N.Y.), 296, 475–477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poulin, P. R., and K. A. Nelson, 2006, Irreversible organic crystalline chemistry monitored in real time: Science (New York, N.Y.), 313, 1756–1760.
A journal article with 3 authors
Trillo, S., J. S. T. Gongora, and A. Fratalocchi, 2014, Wave instabilities in the presence of non vanishing background in nonlinear Schrödinger systems: Scientific Reports, 4, 7285.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, P., B. B. Xiao, X. L. Hou, Y. F. Zhu, and Q. Jiang, 2014, Layered SiC sheets: a potential catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction: Scientific Reports, 4, 3821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrison, A., 2016, The Life of D. H. Lawrence: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
2015, Education for Sustainability in Tourism: A Handbook of Processes, Resources, and Strategies, 1st ed. 2015. (G. Moscardo and P. Benckendorff, eds.,): Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hakeem, F. B., M. R. Haberfeld, and A. Verma, 2012, Human Rights and Islamic Law, in M. R. Haberfeld and A. Verma, eds., Policing Muslim Communities: Comparative International Context, Springer, 41–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysics.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2016, Researchers Identify “Redness” Gene In Birds. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018 IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977, National School Lunch Program: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sahib, S. S., 2010, Numerical solutions of Maxwell’s equations in 1D, 2D, and 3D via the finite element method.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beachp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M., 2014, At an 85-Year-Old Summer Retreat, a Makeover: New York Times, LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carlson, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Carlson, 2002; Poulin and Nelson, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poulin and Nelson, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysics
ISSN (print)0016-8033
ISSN (online)1942-2156

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