How to format your references using the Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleypas, J., 2015, Oceans. Invisible barriers to dispersal: Science (New York, N.Y.), 348, 1086–1087.
A journal article with 2 authors
Houk, K. N., and P. H.-Y. Cheong, 2008, Computational prediction of small-molecule catalysts: Nature, 455, 309–313.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J. H., H. Meng, and Z. Bao, 2001, Field-effect modulation of the conductance of single molecules: Science (New York, N.Y.), 294, 2138–2140.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ogle, J. M., D. E. Brodersen, W. M. Clemons Jr, M. J. Tarry, A. P. Carter, and V. Ramakrishnan, 2001, Recognition of cognate transfer RNA by the 30S ribosomal subunit: Science (New York, N.Y.), 292, 897–902.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anjum, B., and H. Perros, 2015, Bandwidth Allocation for Video Under Quality of Service Constraints: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
2014, Human Interface and the Management of Information. Information and Knowledge in Applications and Services: 16th International Conference, HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings, Part II (S. Yamamoto, ed.,): Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hu, P., N. Ma, L.-Z. Liu, and Y.-G. Zhu, 2013, The Basic Theory and Constitutive Equation Constitutive Equation of High-Strength Steel High-strength steel for Hot Forming hot Forming, in N. Ma, L.-Z. Liu, and Y.-G. Zhu, eds., Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming: Analysis, Simulation and Engineering Applications, , . Springer Series in Advanced ManufacturingSpringer, 69–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geophysics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014, Measles Cases In The US Reach 20-Year High. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018 IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015, Higher Education: Better Management of Federal Grant and Loan Forgiveness Programs for Teachers Needed to Improve Participant Outcomes: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diaz Gonzalez, A. J., 2017, High-Pressure Study of Bio-inspired Multi-Functional Nanocomposites Using Atomic Force Microscopy Methods.Doctoral dissertation, George Washington Universityp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., and A. Smale, 2017, Foreign Leaders Lament U.S. Withdrawal, but Say It Won’t Stop Climate Effort: New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleypas, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Houk and Cheong, 2008; Kleypas, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Houk and Cheong, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ogle et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeophysics
ISSN (print)0016-8033
ISSN (online)1942-2156

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