How to format your references using the Reading and Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Reading and Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Insley, S. J. (2000). Long-term vocal recognition in the northern fur seal. Nature, 406(6794), 404–405.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Groot, B. L., & Grubmüller, H. (2001). Water permeation across biological membranes: mechanism and dynamics of aquaporin-1 and GlpF. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5550), 2353–2357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hatano, T., Stopa, M., & Tarucha, S. (2005). Single-electron delocalization in hybrid vertical-lateral double quantum dots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5732), 268–271.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chuang, C.-P., Yuan, T., Dmowski, W., Wang, G.-Y., Freels, M., Liaw, P. K., et al. (2013). Fatigue-induced damage in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Scientific reports, 3, 2578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stamp, M. (2005). Information Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lehmann-Grube, F., & Sablatnig, J. (Eds.). (2010). Facets of Virtual Environments: First International Conference, FaVE 2009, Berlin, Germany, July 27-29, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 33). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bykova, N. V., & Igamberdiev, A. U. (2016). Redox State in Plant Mitochondria and its Role in Stress Tolerance. In D. K. Gupta, J. M. Palma, & F. J. Corpas (Eds.), Redox State as a Central Regulator of Plant-Cell Stress Responses (pp. 93–115). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Reading and Writing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 24). Higgs Physics Should Have Destroyed Universe. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). Bigeye Bomb: An Evaluation of DOD’s Chemical and Developmental Tests (No. PEMD-86-12BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lizarraga, D. (2017). Effects of large inedible particles on the feeding performance of echinodem larvae (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2017, July 14). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, p. MM16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Insley 2000).
This sentence cites two references (de Groot and Grubmüller 2001; Insley 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Groot and Grubmüller 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chuang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleReading and Writing
AbbreviationRead. Writ.
ISSN (print)0922-4777
ISSN (online)1573-0905
ScopeNeuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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