How to format your references using the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dyson, G.: Turing centenary: The dawn of computing, Nature, 482, 459–460, 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crowley, T. J. and Hyde, W. T.: Transient nature of late Pleistocene climate variability, Nature, 456, 226–230, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rojas, J. P., Torres Sevilla, G. A., and Hussain, M. M.: Can we build a truly high performance computer which is flexible and transparent?, Sci. Rep., 3, 2609, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Steklov, M., Pandolfi, S., Baietti, M. F., Batiuk, A., Carai, P., Najm, P., Zhang, M., Jang, H., Renzi, F., Cai, Y., Abbasi Asbagh, L., Pastor, T., De Troyer, M., Simicek, M., Radaelli, E., Brems, H., Legius, E., Tavernier, J., Gevaert, K., Impens, F., Messiaen, L., Nussinov, R., Heymans, S., Eyckerman, S., and Sablina, A. A.: Mutations in LZTR1 drive human disease by dysregulating RAS ubiquitination, Science, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bain, B. J., Wild, B. J., Stephens, A. D., and Phelan, L. A.: Variant Haemoglobins, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
Du, D.-Z. and Pardalos, P. M. (Eds.): Handbook of Combinatorial Optimization: Supplement Volume B, Springer US, Boston, MA, VIII, 394 p pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Vayo, A. B.: What the Green Grass Hides: Denial and Deception in Suburban Detroit, in: Gothic Landscapes: Changing Eras, Changing Cultures, Changing Anxieties, edited by: Yang, S. R. and Healey, K., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 107–124, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
THC Could Remove Alzheimer’s Plaques From The Brain:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Program To Strengthen Developing Institutions of Higher Education Lacks Direction, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yao, D.: In situ activity of NAC11-7 roseobacters in coastal waters off the Chesapeake Bay based on ftsZ expression, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J.: Forecast for Hurricanes Is Stormier Than Normal, New York Times, 25th May, A14, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dyson, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dyson, 2012; Crowley and Hyde, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Crowley and Hyde, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Steklov et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
AbbreviationHydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1812-2116
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Earth-Surface Processes

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