How to format your references using the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Franson, J. D.: Physics. Pairs rule quantum interference, Science, 329(5990), 396–397, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mervis, J. and Holden, C.: Great expectations on the job front, Science, 304(5678), 1829, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gladyshev, E. A., Meselson, M. and Arkhipova, I. R.: Massive horizontal gene transfer in bdelloid rotifers, Science, 320(5880), 1210–1213, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Wilhelm, B. T., Marguerat, S., Watt, S., Schubert, F., Wood, V., Goodhead, I., Penkett, C. J., Rogers, J. and Bähler, J.: Dynamic repertoire of a eukaryotic transcriptome surveyed at single-nucleotide resolution, Nature, 453(7199), 1239–1243, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnston, D.: A Brief History of Justice, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK., 2011.
An edited book
Baldoni, M., Baresi, L. and Dastani, M., Eds.: Engineering Multi-Agent Systems: Third International Workshop, EMAS 2015, Istanbul, Turkey, May 5, 2015, Revised, Selected, and Invited Papers, 1st ed. 2015., Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Rassart, J., Luyckx, K. and Moons, P.: Adjusting to Congenital Heart Disease in Adolescence: The Role of Patients’ Personality and Self, in Clinical Psychology and Congenital Heart Disease: Lifelong Psychological Aspects and Interventions, edited by E. Callus and E. Quadri, pp. 53–67, Springer, Milano., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: Groundbreaking Test For Parkinson’s Disease Could Lead To Early Detection, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Elementary and Secondary Education Act: Potential Effects of Changing Comparability Requirements, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin, H.-C.: Depression screening in ambulatory care, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M.: Scouting Report, New York Times, 29th July, E5, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Franson, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Franson, 2010; Mervis and Holden, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mervis and Holden, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wilhelm et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
AbbreviationHydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1812-2116
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Earth-Surface Processes

Other styles