How to format your references using the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zuk, M.: Family values in black and white, Nature, 439, 917, 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grayson, M. and Pincock, S.: Nature Index 2015 Collaborations, Nature, 527, S49, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, J., Gong, P., and Zhou, X.: The association between romantic relationship status and 5-HT1A gene in young adults, Sci. Rep., 4, 7049, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Perdomo, D., Baron, B., Rojo-Domínguez, A., Raynal, B., England, P., and Guillén, N.: The α-helical regions of KERP1 are important in Entamoeba histolytica adherence to human cells, Sci. Rep., 3, 1171, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
CCPS: Safe Design and Operation of Process Vents and Emission Control Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
Blass, J. P. (Ed.): Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease, 1st ed., Springer, New York, NY, XVI, 844 p pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Swantek, S. S.: Media, Minorities, and the Stigma of Mental Illness, in: Determinants of Minority Mental Health and Wellness, edited by: Loue, S. and Sajatovic, M., Springer, New York, NY, 1–15, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
Martian Resonance Found In 87-Million-Year-Old Rocks Confirms A Chaotic Solar System:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Resolution Trust Corporation: Stronger Information Technology Leadership Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liggins, J.: Self-concept education as a motivator of life effectiveness, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sack, K.: Deadly Twisters Renew Questions About Pressure on Emergency Budgets, New York Times, 19th April, A17, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zuk, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Zuk, 2006; Grayson and Pincock, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grayson and Pincock, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Perdomo et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
AbbreviationHydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1812-2116
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Earth-Surface Processes

Other styles