How to format your references using the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N.: Physiology: Beating stroke, Nature, 493(7434), S12-3, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cruz, M. and Coontz, R.: Galaxy evolution. A universe of galaxies. Introduction, Science, 333(6039), 169, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shevenell, A. E., Kennett, J. P. and Lea, D. W.: Middle Miocene Southern Ocean cooling and Antarctic cryosphere expansion, Science, 305(5691), 1766–1770, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Bochtler, M., Hartmann, C., Song, H. K., Bourenkov, G. P., Bartunik, H. D. and Huber, R.: The structures of HsIU and the ATP-dependent protease HsIU-HsIV, Nature, 403(6771), 800–805, 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Connor, K., Aardema, F. and Pélissier, M.-C.: Beyond Reasonable Doubt, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK., 2006.
An edited book
Lindler, L. E., Lebeda, F. J. and Korch, G. W., Eds.: Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Lulle, A. and King, R.: Conclusions, Discussion, and Policy Implications, in Ageing, Gender, and Labour Migration, edited by R. King, pp. 105–133, Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY., 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions.

Blog post
Hale, T.: What’s The Science Behind Optical Illusions?, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Computer Systems: Overview of Federal Systems for Processing Aliens Seeking U.S. Entry, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Molina-Gutierrez, E.: Keys to my home: A grant proposal project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W.: I.R.S. Reversal on ‘Church’ Pension Plan Rescues a Fund, New York Times, 2nd April, B3, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Cruz and Coontz, 2011; Savage, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cruz and Coontz, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bochtler et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
AbbreviationHydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1812-2116
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Earth-Surface Processes

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