How to format your references using the Radiotherapy and Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiotherapy and Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNally RJ. Psychology. Psychiatric casualties of war. Science 2006;313:923–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaufman YJ, Koren I. Smoke and pollution aerosol effect on cloud cover. Science 2006;313:655–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang R-Y, Li G, Yu J-Q. Conformation-induced remote meta-C-H activation of amines. Nature 2014;507:215–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Moreno PI, Jacobson GL Jr, Lowell TV, Denton GH. Interhemispheric climate links revealed by late-glacial cooling episode in southern Chile. Nature 2001;409:804–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dayton G. Trade Mindfully. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Smagghe G, Diaz I, editors. Arthropod-Plant Interactions: Novel Insights and Approaches for IPM. vol. 14. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen HD, Poo DCC. Automated Mobile Health: Designing a Social Reasoning Platform for Remote Health Management. In: Meiselwitz G, editor. Social Computing and Social Media: 8th International Conference, SCSM 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17–22, 2016. Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 34–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiotherapy and Oncology.

Blog post
Davis J. Tracking Tiger Sharks Reveals Bird-Like Migration. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Information on the Advanced Technology Program’s 1997 Award Selection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salifu A. Names that prick: Royal praise names in Dagbon, northern Ghana. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. For de Blasio, So Many Jobs to Fill, So Little Time. New York Times 2013:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiotherapy and Oncology
AbbreviationRadiother. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0167-8140
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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