How to format your references using the Radiotherapy and Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiotherapy and Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kump LR. Reducing uncertainty about carbon dioxide as a climate driver. Nature 2002;419:188–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levine B, Elazar Z. Development. Inheriting maternal mtDNA. Science 2011;334:1069–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Atwood JL, Barbour LJ, Jerga A. Storage of methane and freon by interstitial van der Waals confinement. Science 2002;296:2367–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tagaya A, Ohkita H, Mukoh M, Sakaguchi R, Koike Y. Compensation of the birefringence of a polymer by a birefringent crystal. Science 2003;301:812–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verdu J. Oxidative Ageing of Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Asea AAA, Kaur P, Calderwood SK, editors. Heat Shock Proteins and Plants. vol. 10. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Grellert M. Rapid Prototyping in the Context of Cultural Heritage and Museum Displays. In: Münster S, Pfarr-Harfst M, Kuroczyński P, Ioannides M, editors. 3D Research Challenges in Cultural Heritage II: How to Manage Data and Knowledge Related to Interpretative Digital 3D Reconstructions of Cultural Heritage, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 77–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiotherapy and Oncology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Stars Are Dying Puzzlingly Young. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education Programs: Information on the Ed-Flex Demonstration Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eller LS. Social media as avenue for personal learning for educators: Personal learning networks encourage application of knowledge and skills. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. DeGrom Displays His Old Form, but the Mets’ Offense Sputters. New York Times 2017:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiotherapy and Oncology
AbbreviationRadiother. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0167-8140
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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