How to format your references using the Radiotherapy and Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiotherapy and Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Siegal M. Neuroscience. Signposts to the essence of language. Science 2004;305:1720–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Karp X, Ambros V. Developmental biology. Encountering microRNAs in cell fate signaling. Science 2005;310:1288–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Sturm M, Racine C, Tape K. Climate change. Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature 2001;411:546–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Lamsa KP, Heeroma JH, Somogyi P, Rusakov DA, Kullmann DM. Anti-Hebbian long-term potentiation in the hippocampal feedback inhibitory circuit. Science 2007;315:1262–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Perera AH, Buse LJ. Ecology of Wildfire Residuals in Boreal Forests. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Hameurlain A, Küng J, Wagner R, editors. Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XIII. vol. 8420. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
N. Makarov S, Ludwig R, Bitar SJ. Operational Amplifier and Amplifier Models. In: Ludwig R, Bitar SJ, editors. Practical Electrical Engineering, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 189–255.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiotherapy and Oncology.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Secrets Of The Orchid Mantis Revealed – It Doesn’t Mimic An Orchid After All. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/secrets-orchid-mantis-revealed-it-doesn-t-mimic-orchid-after-all/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Leadership Structure for an Independent Social Security Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Hinchey BA. Punishing the Penitent: Disproportionate Fines in Recent FCPA Enforcements and Suggested Improvements. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kelly M. Arkansas Rookie Makes Debut. New York Times 1993:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiotherapy and Oncology
AbbreviationRadiother. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0167-8140
ScopeHematology
Oncology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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