How to format your references using the Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Brock JD. Chemistry. Watching atoms move. Science. 2007 Feb 2;315(5812):609–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Atencia J, Beebe DJ. Controlled microfluidic interfaces. Nature. 2005 Sep 29;437(7059):648–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ni J, Yan Q, Yu Y. How much metagenomic sequencing is enough to achieve a given goal? Sci Rep. 2013;3:1968.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Krupa DJ, Wiest MC, Shuler MG, Laubach M, Nicolelis MAL. Layer-specific somatosensory cortical activation during active tactile discrimination. Science. 2004 Jun 25;304(5679):1989–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Krishnan V. Probability and Random Processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Schatan C, Rivera E, editors. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies: Lessons and Challenges from Central America and Mexico. New York, NY: Springer; 2008. XII, 238 p. 50 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Huang D, Leung H. An EM-IMM Method for Simultaneous Registration and Fusion of Multiple Radars and ESM Sensors. In: Mukhopadhyay SC, Leung H, editors. Advances in Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 101–24. (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. First Ever Fossil Of Trilobite With Eggs Discovered In New York [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/first-ever-fossil-of-trilobite-with-eggs-discovered-in-new-york/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Army Reserve Officer Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 May. Report No.: NSIAD-93-197R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Fernandes JM. Physical and chemical properties of Jupiter’s north and south polar vortex revealed through mid-infrared imaging [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hodara S. A Master of Metallurgy. New York Times. 2015 Feb 1;WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
AbbreviationJ. AAPOS
ISSN (print)1091-8531
ISSN (online)1528-3933
ScopeOphthalmology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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