How to format your references using the Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (Journal of AAPOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bonetta L. Protein purification: protein purification for structural proteomics. Nature. 2006 Feb 23;439(7079):1018.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Abbott A, Gitschel U. German scientists left in the cold as Berlin rejects rescue plan. Nature. 2000 Aug 17;406(6797):663–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Hayden EJ, Ferrada E, Wagner A. Cryptic genetic variation promotes rapid evolutionary adaptation in an RNA enzyme. Nature. 2011 Jun 2;474(7349):92–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
IceCube Collaboration, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, AGILE, ASAS-SN, HAWC, et al. Multimessenger observations of a flaring blazar coincident with high-energy neutrino IceCube-170922A. Science. 2018 Jul 13;361(6398).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Firth-Cozens J, Harrison J. How to Survive in Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Chakrabarti A, editor. ICoRD’15 – Research into Design Across Boundaries Volume 1: Theory, Research Methodology, Aesthetics, Human Factors and Education. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015. XXV, 689 p. 241 illus., 119 illus. in color. (Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies; vol. 34).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Rusiñol M, Lladós J. Symbol Spotting Through Prototype-based Search. In: Lladós J, editor. Symbol Spotting in Digital Libraries: Focused Retrieval over Graphic-rich Document Collections. London: Springer; 2010. p. 89–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. Ceres Asteroid May Have An ‘Ice Volcano’ And Other Signs Of Water, NASA Mission Reveals [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/ceres-asteroid-may-have-an-ice-volcano-and-other-signs-of-water-nasa-mission-reveals/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Success Depends Upon Strong Management and Structured Approach. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Sep. Report No.: T-AIMD-97-173.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Hong PK. Stomach cancer diet education and screening awareness in East Asian American women [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Rothenberg B. Federer, Continuing His Rebound, Soars Into Semifinals as Favorite. New York Times. 2017 Jul 13;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
AbbreviationJ. AAPOS
ISSN (print)1091-8531
ISSN (online)1528-3933
ScopeOphthalmology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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