How to format your references using the Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diamond J. Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication. Nature. 2002 Aug 8;418(6898):700–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Geisler JH, Theodor JM. Hippopotamus and whale phylogeny. Nature. 2009 Mar 19;458(7236):E1-4; discussion E5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy HJ, Crawford AC, Fettiplace R. Force generation by mammalian hair bundles supports a role in cochlear amplification. Nature. 2005 Feb 24;433(7028):880–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Beja-Pereira A, England PR, Ferrand N, Jordan S, Bakhiet AO, Abdalla MA, et al. African origins of the domestic donkey. Science. 2004 Jun 18;304(5678):1781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clarke A, Thompson A, Jenkinson E, Rumsey N, Newell R. CBT for Appearance Anxiety. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Blum C. Hybrid Metaheuristics: Powerful Tools for Optimization. Raidl GR, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XVI, 157 p. 20 illus., 9 illus. in color. (Artificial Intelligence: Foundations, Theory, and Algorithms).
A chapter in an edited book
Levis AA, Papageorgiou LG. Active demand management for substitute products through price optimisation. In: Meyr H, Günther H-O, editors. Supply Chain Planning: Quantitative Decision Support and Advanced Planning Solutions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 1–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

Blog post
Andrew E. Cannibalism And Detachable Penises: The Unusual Sex Lives Of The Animal Kingdom [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Education: Challenges in Promoting Access and Excellence in Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Mar. Report No.: T-HEHS-97-99.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Komatsuzaki T. Borrowing constraints and the business cycle in emerging markets [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler M. Trump Treads Into Feud Between Qatar and Saudis. New York Times. 2017 Jun 6;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
AbbreviationJ. AAPOS
ISSN (print)1091-8531
ISSN (online)1528-3933
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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