How to format your references using the Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon J. Roger Payne profile. A toxic odyssey. Science. 2004 Jun 11;304(5677):1584–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finkelstein A, Taubman S. Health care policy. Randomize evaluations to improve health care delivery. Science. 2015 Feb 13;347(6223):720–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
West GB, Brown JH, Enquist BJ. A general model for ontogenetic growth. Nature. 2001 Oct 11;413(6856):628–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bhargava V, Ko P, Willems E, Mercola M, Subramaniam S. Quantitative transcriptomics using designed primer-based amplification. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1740.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolley T. Low Impact Building. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Valsiner J, Marsico G, Chaudhary N, Sato T, Dazzani V, editors. Psychology as the Science of Human Being: The Yokohama Manifesto. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XXIII, 375 p. 29 illus., 16 illus. in color. (Annals of Theoretical Psychology; vol. 13).
A chapter in an edited book
Sun Z, Zhao B, Liu S, Zhang D-H. Reactive Scattering and Resonance. In: Gatti F, editor. Molecular Quantum Dynamics: From Theory to Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 81–116. (Physical Chemistry in Action).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

Blog post
Andrew E. Deep Calls Or Big Balls? Howler Monkeys Are Either All Mouth, Or All Trousers. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army’s FY 1980 Programs for Procuring Conventional Ammunition, Modernization, and Expansion. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Jun. Report No.: LCD-79-416.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dubin-Thaler BJ. Evidence for hierarchical control of conserved, discrete motility types in crawling motility [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Arrests In 2 Bombings. New York Times. 2004 Jun 11;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
AbbreviationJ. AAPOS
ISSN (print)1091-8531
ISSN (online)1528-3933
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles