How to format your references using the Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig R. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: Bulgarians Sue CERN for Leniency. Science. 2000 Oct 13;290(5490):252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen M, Yan X. Comment on “Grain boundary-mediated plasticity in nanocrystalline nickel.” Science. 2005 Apr 15;308(5720):356; author reply 356.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roseboom W, Kawabe T, Nishida S. The cross-modal double flash illusion depends on featural similarity between cross-modal inducers. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 6;3:3437.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jalilavi M, Zoveidavianpoor M, Attarhamed F, Junin R, Mohsin R. Artificial weathering as a function of CO2 injection in Pahang Sandstone Malaysia: investigation of dissolution rate in surficial condition. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 13;4:3645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cragg PJ. A Practical Guide to Supramolecular Chemistry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Yogesan K, Bos L, Brett P, Gibbons MC, editors. Handbook of Digital Homecare. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. X, 363 p. (Series in Biomedical Engineering).
A chapter in an edited book
Davenport M. Shock. In: Sinha CK, Davenport M, editors. Handbook of Pediatric Surgery. London: Springer; 2010. p. 25–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

Blog post
Luntz S. Signs Of Life From 3.5-Billion-Year-Old Hot Springs Could Change Mars Mission Target [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Protection: Solving NASA’s Current Problems Requires Agencywide Emphasis. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Apr. Report No.: NSIAD-91-146.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhandari S. The Role of System of Systems in Additive Manufacturing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M. Mayor Unveiling Proposal To Close Rikers Jail Complex. New York Times. 2017 Jun 22;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
AbbreviationJ. AAPOS
ISSN (print)1091-8531
ISSN (online)1528-3933
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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