How to format your references using the Hernia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hernia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tobalske BW (2009) Evolution. Symmetry in turns. Science 324:190–191
A journal article with 2 authors
Mota B, Herculano-Houzel S (2015) BRAIN STRUCTURE. Cortical folding scales universally with surface area and thickness, not number of neurons. Science 349:74–77
A journal article with 3 authors
Engler HS, Spencer KC, Gilbert LE (2000) Preventing cyanide release from leaves. Nature 406:144–145
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chang LJ, Lees MR, Balakrishnan G, et al (2013) Low-temperature muon spin rotation studies of the monopole charges and currents in Y doped Ho2Ti2O7. Sci Rep 3:1881

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zonnenshain A, Stauber S (2015) Managing and Engineering Complex Technological Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Popovskij V (2011) Control and Adaptation in Telecommunication Systems: Mathematical Foundations. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Awange JL, Paláncz B (2016) Polynomial Resultants. In: Paláncz B (ed) Geospatial Algebraic Computations: Theory and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 53–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hernia.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Scientists Have Found A Weird Googly-Eyed Squid On The Seafloor. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) UMTA’s Research and Development Program Should Pay Closer Attention to Transit Industry Needs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ochse AR (2013) Targeted Killing, Drones and International Law: How U.S. Practice is Shaping International Law. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Caschetta MB (2011) What Wasn’t Passed On. New York Times ST6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHernia
ISSN (print)1265-4906
ISSN (online)1248-9204

Other styles