How to format your references using the Hernia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hernia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Davis E (2000) Volcanic action at Axial Seamount. Nature 403:379–380
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Furukawa N, Mima J (2014) Multiple and distinct strategies of yeast SNAREs to confer the specificity of membrane fusion. Sci Rep 4:4277
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Dominguez G, Wilkins G, Thiemens MH (2011) The Soret effect and isotopic fractionation in high-temperature silicate melts. Nature 473:70–73
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Schlichting HE, Ofek EO, Wenz M, et al (2009) A single sub-kilometre Kuiper belt object from a stellar occultation in archival data. Nature 462:895–897

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Willis DO (2013) Business Basics for Dentists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
1.
Lambropoulos P (2007) Fundamentals of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Frauwirth K (2015) Glutamine Uptake and Immunomodulation: An Overview. In: Rajendram R, Preedy VR, Patel VB (eds) Glutamine in Clinical Nutrition. Springer, New York, NY, pp 55–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hernia.

Blog post
1.
Davis J (2015) Conservationists to Engrave Every Critically Endangered Ploughshare Tortoise. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/conservationists-engrave-every-critically-endangered-ploughshare-tortoise/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1982) H.R. 4326: Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1981. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mayorga J (2009) MSW students’ perception of mental health competence. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Saslow L (2007) Brookhaven Lab Avoids Cuts in Budget. New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHernia
AbbreviationHernia
ISSN (print)1265-4906
ISSN (online)1248-9204
ScopeSurgery

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